intellectual class ( Hegel 1819). The opposition of state and market represents the internal division within bureaucracy between those who organise public life and those who organise capitalist enterprises. Max Weber ( 1978) gloomy prognosis that the future would be shared between state bureaucracy and market capitalism simply had the advantage of being historically closer to the thing itself. What neither took into account was the people's capacity to resist command from above; and for an understanding of that resistance and our own future we have to turn first to Marx.
Socialism is the extension of the political principle of democracy to economic life. Since work, the central fact of human experience, is still for most people organised in a disagreeably unequal and unfree way, it follows that the historical project of socialism is barely begun. Marx got his timing wrong; but he did discover that industrial capitalism would be a force conducive to the emergence of people power where it counts, in the organisation of production. That is why Capital ( Marx 1867), written during the 1860s in the face of state capitalism's origins, must still be the intellectual starting point for our own moment of world history, its imminent demise in the aftermath of the Cold War ( Grimshaw and Hart 1991).
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