Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust

By Carol Rittner; John K. Roth | Go to book overview

11
Anna Heilman and Rose Meth

In March 1943 Estusia approached me. She told me that resistance was being organized and we were in a position to help because we were the only ones who had access to powder. Would I be willing to risk the danger of being caught? Of course, I agreed right away because it gave me a way to fight back.

ROSE METH

Gisi Fleischmann, Haika Grossman, Rozka Korczak-Marle, Zivia Lubetkin, Franceska Mann, Vladka Meed, Mala Zimetbaum. None of their names are as well known as Anne Frank's. But they deserve to be well known because each of these women, and many more, valiantly resisted the "Final Solution." Until she was captured and gassed Auschwitz, Fleischmann helped run an underground railroad that got Jews out of Poland. Grossman was a resistance fighter in Bialystok; Korczak-Marle organized partisans in Vilna; Lubetkin and Meed were leaders in the Warsaw ghetto uprising. Franceska Mann shot SS men in an Auschwitz-- Birkenau crematorium before she lost her life, and Mala Zimetbaum was the first woman to escape from Auschwitz. She was caught at the Slovakian border, returned to Auschwitz, and sentenced to be hanged. Her suicidal defiance at the gallows--it prevented the Germans from carrying out the sentence--became legendary in the camp.

Such acts of resistance did not crush the Third Reich. It took massive military power to do that. But physical resistance was crucial nonetheless, for, as Rose Meth

-130-

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Different Voices: Women and the Holocaust
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • ALSO BY CAROL RITTNER AND JOHN K. ROTH ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Maps and Photographs ix
  • Preface xi
  • Prologue Women and the Holocaust 1
  • General Suggestions for Further Reading 20
  • Chronology 22
  • Part One Voices of Experience 35
  • Notes 39
  • 1: Ida Fink 40
  • 2: Etty Hillesum 46
  • Notes 57
  • 3: Charlotte Delbo 58
  • 4: Isabella Leitner 65
  • 5: Olga Lengyel 69
  • 6: Livia E. Bitton Jackson 73
  • 7: Pelagia Lewinska 84
  • 8: Charlotte Delbo 99
  • 9: Gisella Perl 104
  • 10: Olga Lengyel 119
  • 11: Anna Heilman and Rose Meth 130
  • Notes 134
  • Notes 141
  • 12: Sara Nomberg-Przytyk 143
  • Suggestions for Further Reading 149
  • Part Two Voices of Interpretation 155
  • Notes 159
  • 13: Gisela Bock 161
  • Notes 179
  • 14: Marion A. Kaplan 187
  • Notes 207
  • 15: Sybil Milton 213
  • Notes 237
  • 16: Vera Laska 250
  • Notes 267
  • 17: Gitta Sereny 270
  • Preface 271
  • 18: Claudia Koonz 287
  • Notes 304
  • 19: Magda Trocmeé 309
  • Suggestions for Further Reading 317
  • Part Three Voices of Reflection 319
  • Notes 323
  • 20: Irena Klepfisz 324
  • 21: Charlotte Delbo 328
  • 22: Ida Fink 332
  • 23: Deborah E. Lipstadt 349
  • 24: Mary Jo Leddy 355
  • 25: Rachel Altman 363
  • Notes 372
  • 26: Joan Ringelheim 373
  • Notes 400
  • Appendices 406
  • Suggestions for Further Reading 419
  • Epilogue - Different Voices 421
  • Notes 426
  • Glossary 427
  • Index 431
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