The American Welfare System: Origins, Structure, and Effects

By Howard Gensler | Go to book overview

tem. Although it is not clear why certain groups benefit disproportionately in the welfare system, it is certainly arguable that the method of welfare allocation is a root cause. Most states had unexplainable residuals with magnitudes and patterns over time when examined on an annual basis that indicate a non-random cause. Where people have discretion in promoting a program, evaluating need, or determining benefits, especially in complex systems, unintended side effects such as bias may easily arise. The delivery system itself can cause problems.


NOTES
599.
See Mark Killingsworth, Labor Supply ( New York: Cambridge University Press, 1983), pp. 379-382.
600.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Money Income: 1990 ( Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1991), p. 202.
602.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Poverty in the United States: 1990 ( Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1991), p. 195.
603.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Measuring the Effect of Benefits and Taxes on Income and Poverty: 1990 ( Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1991), p. 174.
604.
Ibid.
605.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Poverty in the United States: 1990 ( Washington, DC: Governmet Printing Office, 1991), p. 3.
606.
Ibid.
607.
Nicholas Barr, "Economic Theory and the Welfare State: A Survey and Interpretation," Journal of Economic Literature 30 ( 1992), 774-779.
610.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States ( Washington, D.C.: 1994), p. 373.
611.
42 U.S.C. §606(a).
612.
42 USC §608.
613.
42 U.S.C. §607(a) & (b).
614.
42 U.S.C. §602(a)(7).
615.
See W. Joseph Heffernan Jr., "Variations in Negative Tax Rates in Current Public Assistance Programs: An Example of Administrative Discretion," Journalof Human Resources 8 Supp.

-215-

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The American Welfare System: Origins, Structure, and Effects
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface ix
  • I - The Origins of the American Welfare System 1
  • 1 - The Child and the American Welfare State 3
  • Notes 18
  • 2 - The New View of the Child 23
  • Notes 48
  • 3 - Progressive Priorities 55
  • Notes 69
  • 4 - Child Labor and the Mothers' Pension Movement 73
  • Notes 91
  • 5 - The Democratization of Outdoor Relief 97
  • Notes 120
  • 6 - Child Labor and Southern Patriotism 125
  • Notes 150
  • 7 - Farm Labor and "City-Centered" Child Welfare 155
  • Notes 168
  • 8 - The Case of Mothers' Pensions in Memphis 171
  • Notes 185
  • 9 - The Child and the State 189
  • Notes 194
  • II - The Structure and Effects of Welfare 197
  • 10 - The Structure of the American Welfare System 199
  • Notes 215
  • 11 - Behavioral Effects from Welfare 219
  • Notes 226
  • 12 - Reform 231
  • Notes 235
  • 13 - Welfare Policy: Point and Counterpoint 237
  • Notes 266
  • Bibliography 273
  • Index 289
  • About the Editor and Contributors 295
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