Government Structures in the U.S.A. and the Sovereign States of the Former U.S.S.R: Power Allocation among Central, Regional, and Local Governments

By James E. Hickey Jr.; Alexej Ugrinsky | Go to book overview

structures and, especially, the design of state and local representative institutions.


NOTES
1.
Art. I., Sec. 2, cl. 1.
2.
Art. I., Sec. 3, cl. 1.
3.
Amdt. XVH, cl. 1.
4.
Art. II., Sec. 1, cl. 2.
5.
Nebraska currently is the only state that has a unicameral legislature.
6.
In most states, the attorney general and a chief fiscal officer--treasurer or controller--are independently elected, not appointed by the governor. Another commonly elected cabinet official is the chief state education officer.
7.
Most states require voter approval before the state may issue debt. J. Maxwell and J. Aronson, Financing State and Local Governments207-8 ( 3rd ed. 1977). Half the states allow a relatively small group of citizens to suspend the operation of any new law pending its submission and approval by voters in a referendum. D. Magleby, Voting in Ballot Propositions in the United States38-39 ( 1984). Almost two dozen states allow citizens to initiate legislation directly by drafting proposals and placing them on the ballot where, if a requisite majority of the voters approve, they may become law. See id.
8.
See, e.g., Williams v. Rhodes, 393 U.S. 24 ( 1968); Lubin v. Panish, 415 U.S. 709( 1974).
9.
See, e.g., Eu v. San Francisco County Democratic Central Committee, 109 S. Ct. 1013 ( 1989).
10.
See, e.g., Citizens Against Rent Control v. City of Berkeley, 454 U.S. 290 ( 1981).
11.
88 U.S. 162 ( 1974).
12.
See, e.g., Breedlove v. Suttles, 302 U.S. 277 ( 1937) (upholding the poll tax); Lassiter v. Northampton Election Board, 360 U.S. 45 ( 1959) (upholding literacy test).
13.
383 U.S. 663 ( 1966).
14.
395 U.S. 621 ( 1969).
15.
Breedlove v. Suttles, 302 U.S. 277 ( 1937).
16.
Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections, 383 U.S. 663, 665 ( 1966).
17.
Id.
18.
Id. at 670.
19.
Id. at 669.
20.
See Cipriano v. City of Houma, 395 U.S. 701 ( 1969) (revenue bonds); City of Phoenix v. Kolodziejski, 399 U.S. 204 ( 1970); Hill v. Stone, 421 U.S. 289 (requirement of separate approvals of both total electorate and property taxpayers invalidated).
21.
395 U.S. at 629.
22.
395 U.S. at 632 and n. 15.
23.
In the area of public education, Kramer recently led to the invalidation of an Illinois plan for the decentralization of the governance of the Chicago schools to the neighborhood level, where the legislation vested primary electoral authority in neighborhood parents, rather than neighborhood residents. See Fumarolo v. Chicago Board of Education, 566 N.E. 2d 1283 (Ill. 1990).

-201-

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