Government Structures in the U.S.A. and the Sovereign States of the Former U.S.S.R: Power Allocation among Central, Regional, and Local Governments

By James E. Hickey Jr.; Alexej Ugrinsky | Go to book overview

20
The Struggle for Power Allocation Between the Central Government in Moscow and the Administration of the Tyumen Region

Alexei I. Ivandaev

A coup d'état in 1991 resulted in strengthening the powers of the presidential government in Russia and the creation of a new system of executive power accountable to the president. Executive-instructive functions of the government in regions, areas, and autonomous areas were given to administrative leaders, appointed by the president and accountable to him ( Decree of President Yeltsin of August 22, 1991: On some Aspects of Executive Power Activities in the Russian Federation). In order to coordinate activities of executive power structures, special representatives of the president were appointed by him ( Decree of President Yeltsin of August 24, 1991: On Representatives of the Russian Federation President in Regions and Areas of the Russian Federation).

Rapid changes of the political and economic situations after the coup d'état and the disintegration of the U.S.S.R. into separate independent states resulted in the need to develop a new Constitution of the Russian Federation, as well as a federal treaty and other new laws needed to solve the problems of switching the country to a market economy. Weaknesses of the existing code of laws and regulations (i.e., absence of any laws about private property, external economic activities, natural resources, etc.) resulted in significant difficulties for the government and contributed to enacting numerous and ineffective presidential decrees and governmental orders. Lack of experience in business activities and in usage of new laws, as well as underdevelopment of precedent rights, resulted in additional difficulties.

In this situation the struggle for power between the federal government and the local governments in autonomous republics, regions, and areas appeared to be closely connected with the fight of the people, living in the respective territories, for their rights. This is especially true for the republics and regions located in the immense Siberian territory. Here the local population fights

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