Ecological Federalism in the Context of Regional and World Development
The reason for the collapse of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia, two large European federations, was that the purpose for their creation was not a necessity of life. That purpose did not reflect the vital interests of nations that were forcibly drawn into artificial, exceedingly ideologized totalitarian federal states. Possibly this is the very reason for the existence of today's very acute problem of keeping the Russian Federation itself from collapse.
The causes for this are clear: the East European "socialist" countries were created mainly by means of dictatorship, not through voluntary unification as a federation. Dictatorship was the basis of the official theory of socialism. An important 1915 work by V. I. Lenin entitled "On the Slogan of the United States of Europe" states:
Unevenness of economic and political development is an absolute law of capitalism. It follows that a victory of socialism is possible initially in a few or even one separate capitalist country. After its victory, the proletariat of this country, having expropriated capitalists and organized socialist production, would rise against the other, capitalist world, drawing in oppressed classes of other countries, exciting uprisings against capitalists in these countries, even coming out with military force if necessary against exploiter classes and their states. The political form of the society where the proletariat wins by way of overthrowing the bourgeoisie will be a democratic republic that is progressively centralizing the force of the proletariat of a given nation or nations fighting against states that have not gone over to socialism. Annihilation of classes without dictatorship of the oppressed class, the proletariat, is impossible. Free unification of nations under socialism without more or less stubborn struggle of socialist republics with states lagging behind is impossible. 1
The ideological struggle of the U.S.S.R. with states "lagging behind" went on for more than 70 years. That struggle involved great expenses and losses