C. Fred Bergsten, "International Economic Relations," p. 2. For trade
during 1930s, see U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970, Part 2, p. 887.
Hereafter cited as "Commerce, HSUS."
Quotations from William L. Clayton, "The Foreign Economic Policy of
the State Department," Address before Economic Club of Detroit, May 21, 1945, in Department of State Bulletin ( May 27, 1945), 12: 979, 981, 982. Hereafter
cited as "DSB."
The most important revisionist works for the purpose of this study are Fred L. Block, The Origins of International Economic Disorder: A Study of United
States International Monetary Policy from World War II to the Present; Thomas G. Paterson
, Soviet-American Confrontation: Postwar Reconstruction and the Origins
of the Cold War; and Joyce and
Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World
and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954. Two other general revisionist studies
also deserve mention here: William Appleman Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy, and Walter LaFeber, America, Russia, and the Cold War,
1945-1975. The reader will find reference to numerous revisionist works on
specific topics in subsequent chapters. For useful discussions of revisionist
interpretations of the Cold War, see Charles S. Maier, "Revisionism and the
Interpretation of Cold War Origins," and Michael Leigh, "Is There a Revisionist Thesis on the Origins of the Cold War?" For a critique of Marxian theories
on the economic causes of U.S. imperialism, see Robert B. Zevin, "An Interpretation of American Imperialism."
Probably the most popular and representative "orthodox" work currently
is John Spanier, American Foreign Policy Since World War II. Also see Martin F. Herz
, Beginnings of the Cold War ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1966); Louis J. Halle, The Cold War as History. The most important "post-revisionist"
works are John Lewis Gaddis, The United States and the Origins of the Cold War,
1941-1947, and Daniel Yergin, Shattered Peace: The Origins of the Cold War and
the National Security State. On post-revisionist literature, see John Lewis Gaddis
, "The Emerging Post-Revisionist Synthesis on the Origins of the Cold War."