Word and Image: An Introduction to Early Medieval Art

By William J. Diebold | Go to book overview

Notes

Introduction
1.
Cited in C. Chazelle, "Pictures, Books, and the Illiterate: Pope Gregory I's Letters to Serenus of Marseilles," Word & Image 6 ( 1990): 139 (translation slightly adapted).
2.
For example, in the New Age fascination with things alleged to be Celtic or in Thomas Cahill's best-seller, How the Irish Saved Civilization ( New York, 1995).

Chapter
1.
Bede, History of the English Church and People, I.25, trans. L. Sherley-Price ( London, 1968), 69.
2.
Cited in C. Chazelle, "Pictures, Books, and the Illiterate: Pope Gregory I's Letters to Serenus of Marseilles," Word & Image 6 ( 1990): 139 (translation slightly adapted).
3.
Unless otherwise noted, all biblical citations in English are from the Douai-Reims Bible. Although not the most accurate rendering of the original Hebrew and Greek, this is the best version for studying the Western Middle Ages, since it translates the Vulgate, Saint Jerome's fourth-century Latin Bible in use throughout the period.
4.
Gregory of Tours, Glory of the Martyrs, c. 21, trans. R. van Dam ( Liverpool, 1988), 40.
5.
Chazelle, "Pictures, Books, and the Illiterate,"139.
6.
The Letters of St. Boniface, trans. E. Emerton ( New York, 1940), 65.
7.
The Gospel of Matthew is introduced by his symbol, the man, but this is a heavenly creature, not an earthly one.
8.
Cited from G. Henderson, From Durrow to Kells ( London, 1987), 195.
9.
Bede, History of the English Church and People, 139, 86-87.
10.
J. Goody, "Literacy and the Non-literate: The Impact of European Schooling," in The Interface Between the Written and the Oral ( Cambridge, 1987), 139-147 (quoted passage from 139); see also "The Impact of Islamic Writing on Oral Cultures,"125-138.
11.
Bede, History of the English Church and People, I.1, 39-40. For the other examples cited in this paragraph, see J. Kelly, "Books, Learning, and Sanctity in Early Christian Ireland," Thought 54 ( 1979): 253-261; R. Ö Floinn, Irish Shrines and Reliquaries of the Middle Ages ( Dublin, 1994), 36-37; and A. Lucas, "The Social Role of Relics and Reliquaries in Ancient Ireland," Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 116 ( 1986): 32.
12.
J. Goody, "Restricted Literacy in Northern Ghana," in Literacy in Traditional Societies, ed. J. Goody ( Cambridge, 1968), 198-264; the quotations that follow are from 230-231.
13.
Cited from C. Davis-Weyer, Early Medieval Art, 300-1150 ( Toronto, 1986), 73-75.
14.
Goody, "Restricted Literacy,"206.
15.
This point was made by Erwin Panofsky in reference to the decline of manuscript illumination in the fifteenth century: "It has been said that book illumination was killed by the inven

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