Black Workers in White Unions: Job Discrimination in the United States

By William B. Gould | Go to book overview

Notes
Introduction
1. Anthony Lewis, Portrait of a Decade ( New York, 1964), p. 193.
2. Among the works which gave the AFL-CIO more credit than it deserves in matters of race are F. Ray Marshall, The Negro and Organized Labor ( New York, 1965); Derek Bok and John Dunlop, Labor and the American Community ( New York, 1970), pp. 116-137.
3. Rustin, "Blacks and Unions," American Federationist, July 1971, p. 24.
4. B. J. Widick, "Minority Power through Unions," The Nation, Sept. 8, 1969, p. 206.
5. N.Y. Times, Feb. 16, 1972, C 15, col. 1.
6. "The Unions -- IX: Union Ratio of Workers Falls as Economy Rises," ninth in a series of ten arshy; ticles in the Washington Post, April 9-April 19, 1972.
7. Hearings on Proposed Federal Legislation to Prohibit Discrimination in Employment, Before the Sepcial Subcomm. on Labor of the House Comm. on Education and Labor, 87th Cong., 2d Sess., at 999 ( 1962).
8. Id., 1000.
9. Hearings on S. 773, 1210, 1211, and 1937 Before the Sub-Comm. on Employment and Manpower of the Sen. Comm. on Labor and Public Welfare, 88th Cong., 1st Sess., at 299 ( 1963).
10. Local 189, United Papermakers v. United States, 416 F.2d 980, 982 (5th Cir. 1969), cert. denied, 411 U.S. 939 ( 1973), discussed in Ch. 4, beginning at n.29.
11. Hearings on H.R. 405 and Similar Bills Before the General Subcomm. on Labor of the House Comm. on Education and Labor, 88th Cong., 1st Sess., at 83 ( 1903).
12. A transcript of this meeting is in the author's files.
13. U.S. Comm'n on Civil Rights, 1961 Report, Bk. 3: Employment 151 ( 1961).
14. Bok and Dunlop, Labor and the American Community, p. 125.
15. Culpepper v. Reynolds Metals Co., 421 F.2d 888, 891 (5th Cir. 1970).
1 Overview of Constitutional Law in Race Relations
1. 347 U.S. 483 ( 1954) ( Brown I).
2. 347 U.S. 497 ( 1954).
3. Charles Black, "The Lawfulness of the Segregation Decisions," 69 Yale L.J.421, 426 ( 1960).
4. Brown v. Board of Educ., 349 U.S. 294, 300-301 ( 1955) ( Brown II).
5. 163 U.S. 537 ( 1896).
6. Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. (19 How.) 393 ( 1856).
7. Paul Brest, Processes of Constitutional Decisionmaking ( Boston, 1975), p. 494.
8. Id., pp. 494-495.
9. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Bd. of Educ., 402 U.S. 1 ( 1971).
10. Green v. County School Bd., 391 U.S. 430, 439 ( 1968); see also Alexander v. Holmes County Bd. of Educ., 396 U.S. 19, 20 ( 1969): "The obligation of every school district is to terminate dual school systems at once and to operate now and hereafter only unitary schools."
11. See Keyes v. School District No. 1, Denver, 413 U.S. 189 ( 1973), especially Justice Powell's separate opinion, at 217. See generally Frank Goodman, "De Facto School Desegregation: A Constitutional and Empirical Analysis," 60 Calif. L. Rev.275 ( 1972); J. Skelly Wright, "Public School Desegregation: Legal Remedies for De Facto Segregation," 40 N.Y.U. L. Rev.285 ( 1965); Paul Dimond, "School Desegregation in the North: There Is but One Constitution," 7 Harv. Civ. Rights-Civ. Lib. L. Rev.

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