Union in Peril: The Crisis over British Intervention in the Civil War

By Howard Jones | Go to book overview

NOTES

ABBREVIATIONS
AR: Duke of Argyll
BFSP: British and Foreign State Papers
BPP: British Parliamentary Papers
Brit. Lib., Add. Mss.: British Library, Additional Manuscripts, London, England
CFA: Charles Francis Adams
CFA Diary, Letterbook: Adams Family Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society, Boston, Massachusetts
CFA, Jr.: Charles Francis Adams, Jr.
CL: Fourth Earl of Clarendon
CWL: Roy P. Basler, ed., Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln
Disp., GB (NA): Department of State, Diplomatic Dispatches, Great Britain (National Archives), Washington, D.C.
DS: Department of State, United States
FO: Foreign Office, Great Britain
FRUS: United States, Department of State, Papers Relating to Foreign Affairs
GB: Great Britain
GC: General Correspondence
NA: National Archives, Washington, D.C.
NFBL ( NA): DS, Notes from the British Legation in the United States to the Department of State, 1791- 1906 ( National Archives), Washington, D.C.
NTFL, GB (NA): Department of State, Notes to Foreign Legations in the United States, from the Department of State, 1834-1906, Great Britain (National Archives), Washington, D.C.
ORN: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Navies in the War of the Rebellion
Parl. Debates: Thomas C. Hansard, ed., Hansard's Parliamentary Debates
PM/J: Prime Minister/Journal
PRO: Public Record Office, Kew, England
RU: Lord John Russell

INTRODUCTION
1.
See Blumenthal, "Confederate Diplomacy"; Davis, Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government, 2:368-70. Not until the early twentieth century did nations distinguish between de facto and de jure recognition. See Lauterpacht, Recognition in International Law, 332. A de facto government is in control, regardless of questions of its legality. A de jure government is considered lawful even though it may not be in actual control.
2.
Russell to Lyons, Mar. 21, 1861, no. 69, Gladstone Papers, Brit. Lib., Add. Mss., 44,593, vol. 508. Palmerston was Henry John Temple, Third Viscount.
3.
Lyons to Russell, Feb. 4, 1861, Russell Papers, PRO 30/22/35. In April 1861 Stoeckl tried to arrange negotiations between Seward and Southern representatives, but the secretary of state at the last minute decided

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Union in Peril: The Crisis over British Intervention in the Civil War
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Problems of Recognition 10
  • 2 - British Neutrality and the Rules of Modern Civilized Warfare 38
  • 3 - Bull Run and the Threat of Foreign Intervention 57
  • 4 - The Trent Affair and Recognition 80
  • 5 - Trials of British Neutrality 100
  • 6 - Seedtime of British Intervention 122
  • 7 - Emancipation by the Sword and the British Decision to Intervene 138
  • 8 - Antietam and the Move Toward Mediation 162
  • 9 - Prelude to Intervention 181
  • 10 - Denouement: The November Decision in London 198
  • Conclusion 224
  • Notes 231
  • Bibliography 275
  • Index 289
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