". . .ALL MILITARY OFFICERS have been removed and a Sergeant named Batista has been installed as Chief of Staff. . . ." was the surprising message the Department of State in Washington received from its Ambassador in Havana at 8 a.m., September 5, 1933.

Edmund A. Chester, in his book A Sergeant Named Batista, has said:*

"For some months before the downfall of Machado, the Sergeant was a very busy young man. He continued to act as court stenographer at the military trials of the Machado opposition and, being a good observer and revolutionary, he was disturbed by what he saw and heard in these sessions.**

"Sgt. Batista had a personal economic problem in those days of depression. He handled a few real estate transactions and he became a small business man in fruits and vegetables and the manager of a farm. He took a job teaching nights at an academy in Havana, and he earned extra income from tutoring the children of Army officers. He also taught some commercial subjects at the Milanés School.

The quotations in this chapter are used to avoid first-person statements, as they were taken from my originals. I cite them with the commentaries of the author to relate this part of the history.
"Shorthand was precisely the technical beginning of his independent career, for just as many employees have become directors by first being stenographers, which brought them close to intellectual activities, Batista, through his work as a stenographer, came into contact with national problems at a very early age." ( Emil Ludwig, Biography of an Island, pp. 337 and 339.)


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