Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens

By Stanley J. Bolanowski Jr; George A. Gescheider | Go to book overview

when the stimulus ensemble comprises single context: a single frequency whose SPLs change at some point in time. Such single-context conditions show only assimilation effects described earlier; it takes dual context to produce differential contrast.

Clearly time--memory, on a relatively long scale; frame-of-reference-- is important in determining what we judge, how we judge it, and whether we judge two stimuli to be the same or different (see also Ward, 1987). Although we know a good deal about short-term sequential effects, we understand much less about the presumably longer term effects that can so influence perceptual judgments and psychophysical invariances. To locate processes that may pool effects over scores or hundred of trials requires appropriate experimental procedures. Perhaps the long-term process also has a "reset," such that major changes in the stimulus environment can act like typing "CLR" on a microcomputer, abrogating some of the recent contextual effects.

What does all this say about the processing and judgment of sensory and perceptual information? Perception--or, at least, perceptual judgment--is a dynamic process, one that depends not only on the current stimulus but on the possible stimuli that may occur and--what may be the same thing--on the recent and not-so-recent stimuli that have occurred. When we have an adequate theory as well as predictive models of psychophysical perception and judgment, we may be able to say whether it is just perceptual judgment--or whether it is perception itself--that exhibits this dynamism.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Preparation of this chapter was supported by NIH Grants NS21326 and RR05692.


REFERENCES

Algom D., & Marks L. E. (in press). "Range and regression, loudness scales and loudness processing: Toward a context-bound psychophysics". Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.

Anderson N. H. ( 1974). "Algebraic models in perception". In E. C. Carterette & M. P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of perception, Vol. II. Psychophysical judgment and measurement (pp. 215-298). New York: Academic Press.

Brindley G. S. ( 1960). Physiology of the retina and visual pathway. London: Arnold.

Curtis D. W., Attneave F., & Harrington T. L. ( 1968). "A test of a two-stage model for magnitude estimation". Perception & Psychophysics, 3, 25-31.

Helson H. ( 1964). "Adaptation-level theory". An experimental and systematic approach to behavior. New York: Harper & Row.

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Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • A Small Oral History ix
  • List of Participants xiv
  • 1: Introduction to Conference on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 1
  • References 7
  • 2: What Is A Ratio in Ratio Scaling? 8
  • Acknowledgments 16
  • References 17
  • 3: Natural Measurement 18
  • Introduction 18
  • Summary 25
  • References 25
  • 4: The Dynamics of Ratio Scaling 27
  • Introduction 27
  • Acknowledgments 41
  • References 41
  • 5: Magnitude Matching: Application to Special Populations 43
  • Introduction 43
  • Acknowledgments 57
  • References 57
  • 6: A Single Scale Based on Is Ratio and Partition Estimates 59
  • Introduction 59
  • References 77
  • 7: Associative Measurement of Psychological Magnitude 79
  • References 98
  • 8: Toward A Unified Psychophysical Law and Beyond 101
  • Introduction 101
  • References 111
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • Acknowledgments 127
  • References 127
  • 10: Multiple Moduli and Payoff Functions in Psychophysical Scaling 129
  • Introduction 129
  • Acknowledgments 138
  • References 138
  • 11: Quality Assurance in Environmental Psychophysics 140
  • References 160
  • 12: Brightness Sensation and the Neural Coding of LIght Intensity 163
  • Introduction 163
  • Acknowledgments 181
  • References 181
  • 13c: Hemosensory Representation in Perception and Memory 183
  • Acknowledgments 197
  • References 197
  • 14: Loudness Adaptation Measured by the Method of Successive Magnitude Estimation 199
  • Introduction 199
  • Acknowledgments 212
  • References 212
  • 15: Loudness Measurement by Magnitude Scaling: Implications for Intensity Coding 215
  • Introduction 215
  • Acknowledgment 226
  • References 226
  • 16: The Loudness of Non-Steady State Sounds: Is A Ratio Scale Applicable? 229
  • Introduction 229
  • Conclusions 243
  • Acknowledgment 244
  • References 244
  • 17: Ratio Scaling, Taste Genetics, and Taste Pathologies 246
  • References 257
  • 18: Measurement of VIbrotactile Sensation Magnitude 260
  • Introduction 260
  • Summary 272
  • Acknowledgments 273
  • 19: Lntersensory Generality of Psychological Units 277
  • Introduction 277
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 293
  • 20: Final Comments on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 295
  • Introduction 295
  • References 309
  • Author Index 313
  • Subject Index 321
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