Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens

By Stanley J. Bolanowski Jr; George A. Gescheider | Go to book overview

14 Loudness Adaptation Measured by the Method of Successive Magnitude Estimation

Bertram Scharf Laboratoire do Mécanique et d'Acoustique, CNRS, Marseille, and Auditory Perception Laboratory, Northeastern University


INTRODUCTION

In this chapter I document the immense advantage of ratio scaling, especially magnitude estimation, in the measurement of loudness adaptation. By loudness adaptation I mean ( Scharf, 1983): "a decrease in the loudness of a steady sound over time" (p. 1). The advantage of magnitude estimation applies to other types of sensory adaptation but is especially important for loudness, where strong interaural interactions have misled many a researcher. A classical approach to measuring loudness adaptation has been via interaural loudness matches. Turn on a sound and then judge its loudness in comparison to that of some other occasional sound. Presenting the comparison sound to the contralateral ear avoids any interruption of the continuous sound. Such procedures, referred to as simultaneous dichotic loudness balance, have revealed as much as 40 dB of "loudness adaptation" after a few minutes of exposure (e.g., Hood, 1950; Kärjä, 1968).

The problem is that the supposedly neutral comparison sound is not a disinterested measuring stick but interacts with events in the other, test ear thereby provoking the observed loudness decline. Early on, Bocca and Pestalozza ( 1959), Elliot and Fraser ( 1970), and Ward ( 1973) pointed out this possibility. One way to circumvent the problem of interaural interaction is to turn off the test sound just before turning on a comparison sound in the other ear. Using this method, referred to as delayed dichotic loudness balance, several early investigators (e.g., Békésy 1929) reported sizable adaptation, but a number of contemporary papers (e.g., Harbert, Weiss, & Wilpizeski, 1968) report no adaptation. Aside from the discrep

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Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitude: In Honor of the Memory of S.S. Stevens
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • A Small Oral History ix
  • List of Participants xiv
  • 1: Introduction to Conference on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 1
  • References 7
  • 2: What Is A Ratio in Ratio Scaling? 8
  • Acknowledgments 16
  • References 17
  • 3: Natural Measurement 18
  • Introduction 18
  • Summary 25
  • References 25
  • 4: The Dynamics of Ratio Scaling 27
  • Introduction 27
  • Acknowledgments 41
  • References 41
  • 5: Magnitude Matching: Application to Special Populations 43
  • Introduction 43
  • Acknowledgments 57
  • References 57
  • 6: A Single Scale Based on Is Ratio and Partition Estimates 59
  • Introduction 59
  • References 77
  • 7: Associative Measurement of Psychological Magnitude 79
  • References 98
  • 8: Toward A Unified Psychophysical Law and Beyond 101
  • Introduction 101
  • References 111
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • 9: Derivation of An Index of Discrimination from Magnitude Estimation Ratings 115
  • Acknowledgments 127
  • References 127
  • 10: Multiple Moduli and Payoff Functions in Psychophysical Scaling 129
  • Introduction 129
  • Acknowledgments 138
  • References 138
  • 11: Quality Assurance in Environmental Psychophysics 140
  • References 160
  • 12: Brightness Sensation and the Neural Coding of LIght Intensity 163
  • Introduction 163
  • Acknowledgments 181
  • References 181
  • 13c: Hemosensory Representation in Perception and Memory 183
  • Acknowledgments 197
  • References 197
  • 14: Loudness Adaptation Measured by the Method of Successive Magnitude Estimation 199
  • Introduction 199
  • Acknowledgments 212
  • References 212
  • 15: Loudness Measurement by Magnitude Scaling: Implications for Intensity Coding 215
  • Introduction 215
  • Acknowledgment 226
  • References 226
  • 16: The Loudness of Non-Steady State Sounds: Is A Ratio Scale Applicable? 229
  • Introduction 229
  • Conclusions 243
  • Acknowledgment 244
  • References 244
  • 17: Ratio Scaling, Taste Genetics, and Taste Pathologies 246
  • References 257
  • 18: Measurement of VIbrotactile Sensation Magnitude 260
  • Introduction 260
  • Summary 272
  • Acknowledgments 273
  • 19: Lntersensory Generality of Psychological Units 277
  • Introduction 277
  • Acknowledgments 293
  • References 293
  • 20: Final Comments on Ratio Scaling of Psychological Magnitudes 295
  • Introduction 295
  • References 309
  • Author Index 313
  • Subject Index 321
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