There were pioneer women who were not the pioneers. These the women for whom the varied lands called "the West," had always been home. Native American women and Spanish speaking women, they watched the Anglo transformation of the land with a different, saddened eye. Tribe by tribe, group by group, they witnessed changes that touched their homes, their families, their own lives. They understood the word "invasion" in many forms, and they participated in the protection of land and kin. Their lives as women did not follow one common path. Clan and tribe shaped the experiences of Native American women, and these differed across the West.
After 1865, a series of wars, brought on by the increasing encroachments of whites and buttressed by Indians' earlier sour experiences with the U. S. government, thrust Native American