Encountering the World: Toward An Ecological Psychology

By Edward S. Reed | Go to book overview

games and activities. The infant-directed speech of adults also tracks these changes: the ratio of informative to noninformative (mere commenting) speech undergoes a complete reversal between 3 and 9 months. Only 38% of infant-directed speech at 3 months is informative, but 61% is informative at 9 months ( Boerse & Elias, 1994).

Not only do caregivers change their infant-directed speech at this time but they now begin to add to it a variety of actions that serve to gather and direct the child's attention: objects are held in front of a child and made to emit noises (either by manipulating them or by "supplying" the noises); objects are loomed up at and/or away from the child's face; patterns of repetition with crescendo and decrescendo increase in vocalizations; and a variety of rhythmic devices are used as well ( Zukow & Duncan, 1994).


Conclusion: Becoming a Person and Entering into a Culture

In a sense, all subsequent social interaction emerges from dynamic triadic interaction-- it is the basic frame from which all varieties of human social interaction emerge and differentiate. From now on in the life of the child he or she will encounter objects, places, and events as one among many mobile people. They must learn to integrate their skills in regard to inanimate objects with their interaction skills to adapt to these increasingly complex social settings.

The child who has begun to master a dynamic triadic interaction frame has begun to be a person in the completest sense of the word. This young person has a set of skills and interests, which, however small and underdeveloped, are his or her own field of free action. And, important, among the skills is the ability to share objects, places, and events in the surroundings with others--to enter into all the varied forms of the dynamic triadic frame established by the culture. Indeed, he or she is not only capable of sharing but has also begun to learn how to indicate what is being shared, by gestures and vocalizations, emphasizing specific objects, places, or events in the stream of action, so as to promote the attention an action of his or her social partners.

These abilities involve powers of selection and choice that begin to define personality, disposition, and interests. Being mobile, infants can often choose what objects they want, or find a desired place, or engage in a selected event or activity. In addition, they can comprehend (at least up to a point) what the choices and selections of their caregivers mean, and they can even take steps to accommodate, reshape, or even thwart their caregivers' promotions.

Anthropologists have rightly come to be suspicious of reifying concepts like "culture" ( Wolf, 1982). Some, like Carrithers ( 1992, p. 34), suggest that concepts like interaction and social relations are more real than culture and therefore can be used to ground our thinking about human nature. Ecological psychology dovetails nicely with this trend in anthropological theorizing, because it gives a rich and dynamic meaning to interaction. In particular, as this chapter has shown, ecological psychology's understanding of sociality both gives us concrete insights into the development of interaction and helps us avoid theoretical dilemmas. Is human sociality reducible to the activities of individuals or is sociality itself irreducible? The answer to this theoretical

-138-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Encountering the World: Toward An Ecological Psychology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface and Acknowledgments v
  • Contents ix
  • Introduction: the Significance of the Psychological 3
  • 1 - Regulation Versus Construction 9
  • Conclusion: the Fundamental Hypothesis of Ecological Psychology 18
  • 2 - An Evolutionary Psychology 20
  • Conclusion 27
  • 3 - Affordances: A New Ecology for Psychology 29
  • Conclusion: the Evolution of Behavior Among the Affordances of the Environment 45
  • 4 - The Importance of Information 47
  • Conclusion 67
  • 5 - Functional Systems and the Mechanisms of Behavior 68
  • Conclusion 82
  • 6: Varieties of Action Systems 83
  • 7 - The Effort After Value and Meaning 96
  • Conclusion 110
  • 8 - The Human Environment 111
  • Conclusion 125
  • 9 - Becoming a Person 126
  • Conclusion: Becoming A Person and Entering into A Culture 138
  • 10 - The Daily Life of the Mind 140
  • Conclusion 151
  • 11 - Entering the Linguistic Environment 153
  • Conclusion 167
  • 12 - Streams of Thought 169
  • Conclusion 183
  • Epilogue: The Significance of Ecological Psychology 184
  • Conclusion 189
  • References 191
  • Index 207
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 216

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.