xxxviTo my dear friend Hommy-Beg: the dedication is to Stoker's friend Thomas Henry Hall Caine ( 1853-1931), the popular novelist. Of Manx parentage, and author of The Manxman ( 1894), Caine was known to intimates by the Manx diminutive 'Hommy-Beg', meaning 'little Tommy'.
1Bistritz: a town in Transylvania, the region occupied by the plateau of what is now the centre and north-west of Romania.
Klausenburgh: town in central Transylvania, now known as Cluj.
Carpathians: the principal chain of mountains in eastern central Europe, forming a horseshoe shape on maps.
Moldavia, and Bukovina: eastern regions of Romania.
Ordnance Survey maps: detailed maps of all parts of Britain, drawn to a scale of one inch to the mile and used for military and other purposes following the Ordnance Survey Act of 1841.
2post town: a town in which post-horses are available.
Attila and the Huns: Attila, who died in AD 453, was the most famous leader of the Huns, a nomadic people of Asiatic origin who overran parts of the Roman Empire in the fifth century.
4the eve of St George's Day: the night preceding 23 April, believed, in various parts of eastern Europe, to be the time at which evil powers are at the full.
5an English Churchman: a member of the Church of England, and thus to some degree a Protestant suspicious about the use of religious images as magic charms.
London cat's-meat: horseflesh sold as food for cats.
6Servian: Serbian.
7Hospadars: rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia until 1866.
goitre: a thyroid condition marked by a swollen neck.
8hay-ricks in the trees: in fact, hay-ricks built upon wooden stakes according to the local custom.
10the Herr: the gentleman.
a calU00E8che: a light carriage covered with a folding hood.
Bürger's 'Lenore': the celebrated ballad 'Lenore' ( 1773) by the German poet Gottfried Bürger ( 1747-94) tells how Lenore elopes with the ghost of her dead lover and weds him at his graveside. The line given here is slightly misquoted.


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