Urban Planning in a Multicultural Society

By Michael A. Burayidi | Go to book overview
Roberts 1994:9). A study of "empowerment" policies in Puerto Rico concluded that "personal control was gained at the expense of critical consciousness; it accepts individual success at the expense of the social development, sustained inequality, individualism, and private over social property" ( Wright and Roberts 1994:10). Wright and Roberts suggest a redefinition that uses the term "collective empowerment" to capture the original oppositional content of the term. Barbara Cruikshank goes further to argue that the whole concept of empowerment is a way of linking those "empowered" to the power holding them in subjection.
11.
This is a proposal that, however, does not seem likely to become reality as of this writing.
12.
The legislation in question is Public Law 105-33. In the arcane procedure used in adopting budgets in the United States, funds need to be first authorized, then appropriated. Thus far, only $25 million has been submitted as an appropriation in the House, and, in the words of the Community Development Digest, September 2, 1997:15, "The funding picture doesn't look so good".

REFERENCES

Gramlich, Ed. Targeting Times, vol. 5, no. 1, Winter 1994:1. Haar Charles M. Between the Idea and the Reality: A Study in the Origin, Fate, and Legacy of the Model Cities Program. Boston: Little, Brown. 1975. Hoggett Paul. "The Modernization of the United Kingdom Welfare State" in Burrows, Roger and Brian Loader, Towards a Post-Fordist Welfare State. London: Routledge. 1994.

Lemman Nicholas. "Rebuilding the Ghetto Doesn't Work". The New York Times, January 9, 1994:27.

Marcuse, Peter. "The Targeted Crisis: On the Ideology of the Urban Fiscal Crisis and Its Uses", in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 5, no. 3, 1981:330.

Marcuse Peter. "Empowering New York", City Limits, March 1994:20-21.

Marcuse Peter. "The Enclave, the Citadel, and the Ghetto: What Has changed in the PostFordist U.S. City". Urban Affairs Review, vol. 33, no. 2, November 1997:228-64.

Marcuse Peter. "Space Over Time: The Changing Position of the Black Ghetto in the United States". Netherland, Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, vol. 13, no. 1. 1998.

Okagaki Alan. Editorial in Community Change, vol. 19, Fall 1997:4.

Rose Harold. "The Black Ghetto. New York: McGraw Hill. 1971."

Wright Talmadge and Michael Roberts. "Homeless Collective Empowerment Strategies: San Hose, California vs. Chicago, Illinois". A paper presented at the XIII World Congress of Sociology. Bielefeld, German. July 1994.

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