I WROTE this book while I was a visiting professor in Sweden in 1991-2. My biggest debt is therefore to my colleagues at FUMS (Avdelningen för forskning och utbildning i modern svenska) in the Institute for Nordic Languages at the University of Uppsala and to the Swedish Research Council for the Humanities and Social Sciences for awarding me the Kerstin Hesselgren visiting professorship which made my stay possible and rewarding both intellectually and personally. My perception of fundamental sociolinguistic problems has been sharpened by my interaction with my colleagues at FUMS, whose interests and expertise span virtually the whole field of sociolinguistics.
I would also like to thank Isabel Forbes for sending me the article on French usage, and my colleague Olle Josephson at FUMS for bringing the case of nörd to my attention, both of which provide examples for my discussion of linguistic change in Chapter 6. I am also grateful to Nancy C. Dorian for helping me to locate various pieces of information I needed, and to Jim and Lesley Milroy for their helpful comments on the first draft of this book.
Several of the figures and tables in the pages which follow are reproduced or adapted from other sources, and I am grateful to the copyright holders for granting permission for these materials to be used. Figure 1.1 is adapted from A Survey of New Guinea Languages ( Capell 1969): 125, by permission of the University of Sydney. Figure 2.2 is reproduced from Gillian Sankoff's 'Language Use in Multi-lingual Societies', in Sociolinguistics ( Pride and Holmes, eds. 1971; Penguin): 33-51, by permission of the author. The cartoon in Figure 3.1 by Bo Bojesen first appeared in Politiken, 23 March 1963, and is reproduced with the artist's permission. Figure 3.2 is reproduced from William Labov "'The Reflection of Social Processes in Linguistic Structures'", in Readings in the Sociology of Language ( Fishman, ed. 1968): 240-51, by