Herrington A. ( 1985). "Writing in academic settings: A study of the contexts for writing in two college engineering courses". Research in the Teaching of English, 19( 4), 331-359.
Langer J. A. ( 1984). "The effects of available information on responses to school writing tasks". Research in the Teaching of English, 18( 1), 27-44.
Langer J. A. ( 1986). "Learning through writing: Study skills in the content areas". Journal of Reading, 29( 5), 400-506.
Langer J. A. & Applebee A. N. ( 1987). How writing shapes thinking: A study of teaching and learning (Research Report No. 22). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Marshall J. D. ( 1987). "The effects of writing on students' understanding of literary texts". Research in the Teaching of English, 21( 1), 30-63.
McCarthy L. P. ( 1987). "A stranger in strange lands: A college student writing across the curriculum". Research in the Teaching of English, 21( 3), 233-265.
Murray D. ( 1980). "Writing as process: How writing finds its own meaning". In T. R. Donovan & B. W. McClelland (Eds.), Eight approaches to teaching composition (pp. 3-20). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Nelson J. ( 1990). "This was an easy assignment: Examining how students interpret academic writing tasks". Research in the Teaching of English, 24( 4), 362-396.
Nelson J. & Hayes J. R. ( 1988). "How the writing context shapes college students' strategies for writing from sources (Tech. Rpt. No. 16)". Berkeley, CA: Center for the Study of Writing.
Newell G. E. ( 1984). "Learning from writing in two content areas: A case study/protocol analysis". Research in the Teaching of English, 18( 3), 265-287.
Newell G. E. & Winograd P. ( 1989). "The effects of writing on learning from expository text". Written Communication, 6( 2), 196-217.
Penrose A. M. ( 1989). "Strategic differences in composing: Consequences for learning through writing (Tech. Rpt. No. 31)". Berkeley, CA: Center for the Study of Writing.
Penrose A. M. ( 1992). "To write or not to write: Effects of task and task interpretation on learning through writing". Written Communication, 9( 4), 465-500.
Schumacher G. M. & Nash J. G. ( 1991). "Conceptualizing and measuring knowledge change due to writing". Research in the Teaching of English, 25,67-96.
Shaughnessy M. P. ( 1977). Errors and expectations. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sommers N. ( 1980). "Revision strategies of student writers and experienced adult writers". College Composition and Communication, 31( 4), 378-388.
Walvoord B. E. & McCarthy L. P. ( 1990). Thinking and writing in college: A naturalistic study of students in four disciplines. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
Paternalism, according to Webster's Seventh Collegiate Dictionary, is "a system under which an authority treats those under its control in a fatherly way, especially in regulating their conduct and supplying their needs." In the United States, there are some economic relationships that can be aptly described as paternalistic. For example, affluent families hire domestic servants who sometimes come to be regarded and treated as family members. But such relationships do not describe the mainstream of the American economy. For the most part, workers in America are protected by union contracts and legal rights. They do not routinely look upon their employer as a fatherly or parental figure who will attend to their general welfare and happiness in return for the services they render.
In cultures where there is no strong, centralized government to define and protect____________________