Hearing Ourselves Think: Cognitive Research in the College Writing Classroom

By Barbara M. Sitko; Ann M. Penrose | Go to book overview
Over 60% of teenage smokers interviewed in a 1984 study reported that "looking good" was one reason why they smoked.
Twenty randomly selected billboard ads depicting male and female smokers were shown to 97 college students in a 1985 study. These students, consisting of smokers and non-smokers, generally agreed that the smokers in those ads were "attractive," "well-dressed," "exciting" and "middle to upper class."
In New York City a telephone survey revealed that on the average, non-smokers interviewed earn $17,000 a year less than smokers.
Surveys conducted in seven Midwestern towns over a two-year period showed no correlation between smoking and religion, smoking and income bracket of smoking and marital status. A correlation was found between smoking and occupation type. Those with desk jobs (secretaries, receptionists, office workers) were found more likely to be smokers than those working outdoors or those more physically active on the job.
According to polls taken at Harvard, Yale, and Stanford universities, smoking among the ivy league students has dropped dramatically over the past 20 years.
During 1984-1985, celebrities such as Johnny Carson and Mia Farrow have made public statements warning pregnant mothers not to smoke. Sports stars such as Larry Bird and Lynn Swann have also joined the media's no-smoking campaign.
In 1981, the Raleigh Tobacco Co. was the first to offer free gifts such as sunglasses and sports wallets with the purchase of its less popular brand cigarettes.
Today, nearly 49% of brands sold in the U.S. offer a "light" blend of the original brand.
The average smoker today in the U.S. falls in the 20-40 age bracket, is employed, and smokes 18.4 cigarettes per day.

Appendix B: Source Materials -- Historical Documents

DOCUMENT GROUP A-E: THE IMPACT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY ERA

Document A

By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in law: that is, the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated and consolidated into that of the husband. . . . For this reason, a man cannot grant any thing to his wife, or enter into covenant with her, for the grant would be to suppose her separate existence. . . .

If the wife be injured in her person or her property, she can bring no action for redress without her husband's concurrence, and in his name, as well as her own, neither can she be sued without making the husband a defendant. . . . (Sir William Blackstone , Commentaries on the Laws of England ( 1765-1769), the work of an English jurist in the decades immediately following the Revolution.)

-95-

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