Higher Education: Resources and Finance

By Seymour E. Harris | Go to book overview

expert found that a year-round schedule for the nation's IHL would increase degrees by 56 per cent a year, provide 30 per cent more instructional facilities, and make possible a 30 per cent rise of faculty salaries. At the University of Pennsylvania, a modernization of curriculum and facilities increased the capacity for engineering students by 50 per cent. Through a lengthening of the school year and reduction of duplication--e.g., largely concentrating chemistry in the medical schools--the Johns Hopkins Medical School expects to save the student two years, and of course utilize the capacity much more effectively. Western Reserve University has also experimented in its medical school to avoid duplication, increase independent work, and further integration of staff and materials. At Kenyon College it was estimated that an increased use of capacity by increasing enrollment by 80 would reduce the average deficit over several years from $56,000 to $23,000 to $32,000. A widespread practice of upgrading teachers colleges to liberal arts or even to complex colleges also increases capacity. Though in 1921 only 42 per cent of the 165 accredited degree- granting teachers colleges operated at the baccalaureate level, by 1959 only 38 per cent of 180 institutions primarily prepared teachers.

Many other examples of moves toward fuller use of capacity are available: the Hofstra experiment for saturating the student with a full day's work (four to five days a week); the Oberlin four-quarter system, unhappily turned down by the faculty; experiments at Dartmouth; and serious consideration at Amherst, where students gave many good reasons pro and con for full-year operation.

But the Coordinating Committee on Higher Education in Wisconsin is cautious about the three-semester or four-quarter system. Student unfriendly sentiment, additional costs, underestimation of current use of campuses in the summer quarter, and loss of employment income of students are among the points raised.6


FOOTNOTES
1
See the interesting article by President C. Davidson, "Industrial Techniques for Higher Education," Journal of Higher Education, November, 1955, pp. 408-413.
2
Changing Times, November, 1958.
3
Bulletin of the Association of American Colleges, vol. 18, 1932, p. 261; W. S. Gray (ed.), Needed Readjustments in Higher Education, V. 1933, passim and pp. 6-7.
4
Designed for Excellence, the President's Report, University of Pennsylvania, 1956, p. 12.
5
Tradition and Transition, ibid., 1955, pp. 11 and 12.
6
Designed for Excellence, op. cit., p. 28; Hofstra College, A Proposal for the Establishment of an Experimental College, 1958; Amherst College, Report of the Committee on the Future Size of the College and Related Subjects, May, 1959, pp. 28-29; T. B. Turner, "The Liberal Arts in Medical Education," Association ofAmerican Colleges Bulletin

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