Abbreviations Used in Notes
Archives of the Mennonite Church, Goshen, Indiana|
Brethren Historical Library and Archives, Elgin, Illinois|
DG|| Document Group|
Mennonite Library and Archives, North Newton, Kansas|
Menno Simons Historical Library, Harrisonburg, Virginia|
Nancy Foster Neumann Papers, Maineville, Ohio|
Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania|
On the history of conscription in the United States, see Moskos and
eds., Conscientious Objectors and the American State." While public policy in the United States has shifted from conscription to voluntarism in the second half of the twentieth century, the phenomenon of conscientious objection persists. The Gulf
War prompted an estimated 1,500-2,500 Americans to file claims as C.O.s, and
Amnesty International reported that U.S. military officials jailed twenty-nine conscientious objectors illegally during and after the war ( Dellums' Bill," 1).
The one hundred thousand figure is an estimate of American male conscientious objectors, ages nineteen to forty-four, who reported for noncombatant service,
entered Civilian Public Service, or went to prison. Sibley and
Jacob, Conscription of
Conscience, 84. On noncombatant C.O.s in World War II and the difficulties in estimating their number, see Eller, Conscientious Objectors and the Second World War, 28.
For a superb bibliographic essay on CPS literature, see Mitchell Robinson, Civilian Public Service," xiii-xviii. Robinson's dissertation, one of several that assess
American conscientious objection during World War II, provides a comprehensive
overview of CPS. Earlier histories of CPS include Eisan, Pathways of Peace,
Gingerich, Service for Peace, and
Jacob, Conscription of Conscience. Notable memoirs
published in recent years include Zahn, Another Part of the War,
Dasenbrock, To the
Beat of a Different Drummer,
Waring, Something for Peace,
Adrian Wilson, Two Against the
van Dyck, Exercise of Conscience.
The estimate of two thousand women is based upon surveys of the dependents
of CPS men, as well as records of women who served as dietitians, nurses, and mental
health workers ( Sibley and
Jacob, Conscription of Conscience, 221, 303,
Gingerich, Service for Peace, 361, and
Hershberger, Mennonite Church in the Second World War, 184).
Quotation from Kreider memo to author.
Quoted in Adams, Peacework, 186.
Chafe, American Woman, 136. Chafe published a revised study, Paradox of
Change, in 1991. By focusing on women's work experiences, D'Ann Campbell, Alan
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Women against the Good War:Conscientious Objection and Gender on the American Home Front, 1941-1947.
Contributors: Rachel Waltner Goossen - Author.
Publisher: University of North Carolina Press.
Place of publication: Chapel Hill, NC.
Publication year: 1997.
Page number: 137.
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