Women against the Good War: Conscientious Objection and Gender on the American Home Front, 1941-1947

By Rachel Waltner Goossen | Go to book overview

Notes

Abbreviations Used in Notes
AMC Archives of the Mennonite Church, Goshen, Indiana
BHLA Brethren Historical Library and Archives, Elgin, Illinois
DG Document Group
MLA Mennonite Library and Archives, North Newton, Kansas
MSHL Menno Simons Historical Library, Harrisonburg, Virginia
NP Nancy Foster Neumann Papers, Maineville, Ohio
SCPC Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania

Introduction
1.
On the history of conscription in the United States, see Moskos and Chambers, eds., Conscientious Objectors and the American State." While public policy in the United States has shifted from conscription to voluntarism in the second half of the twentieth century, the phenomenon of conscientious objection persists. The Gulf War prompted an estimated 1,500-2,500 Americans to file claims as C.O.s, and Amnesty International reported that U.S. military officials jailed twenty-nine conscientious objectors illegally during and after the war ( Dellums' Bill," 1).
2.
The one hundred thousand figure is an estimate of American male conscientious objectors, ages nineteen to forty-four, who reported for noncombatant service, entered Civilian Public Service, or went to prison. Sibley and Jacob, Conscription of Conscience, 84. On noncombatant C.O.s in World War II and the difficulties in estimating their number, see Eller, Conscientious Objectors and the Second World War, 28.
3.
For a superb bibliographic essay on CPS literature, see Mitchell Robinson, Civilian Public Service," xiii-xviii. Robinson's dissertation, one of several that assess American conscientious objection during World War II, provides a comprehensive overview of CPS. Earlier histories of CPS include Eisan, Pathways of Peace, Gingerich, Service for Peace, and Sibley and Jacob, Conscription of Conscience. Notable memoirs published in recent years include Zahn, Another Part of the War, Dasenbrock, To the Beat of a Different Drummer, Waring, Something for Peace, Adrian Wilson, Two Against the Tide, and van Dyck, Exercise of Conscience.
4.
The estimate of two thousand women is based upon surveys of the dependents of CPS men, as well as records of women who served as dietitians, nurses, and mental health workers ( Sibley and Jacob, Conscription of Conscience, 221, 303, Gingerich, Service for Peace, 361, and Hershberger, Mennonite Church in the Second World War, 184).
5.
Quotation from Kreider memo to author.
6.
Matt. 5:39.
7.
Quoted in Adams, Peacework, 186.
8.
Chafe, American Woman, 136. Chafe published a revised study, Paradox of Change, in 1991. By focusing on women's work experiences, D'Ann Campbell, Alan

-137-

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Women against the Good War: Conscientious Objection and Gender on the American Home Front, 1941-1947
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Illustrations and Tables ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • Abbreviations xiii
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - The Conscripting of Civilians 11
  • 2 - Am I Worth Dying For? 29
  • 3 - No Girl Should Marry into This Kind of Life 44
  • 4 - Looking for a Few Good Women 69
  • 5 - Collegiate Women Pacifists 94
  • 6 - in the Aftermath of War 112
  • Conclusion 129
  • Appendix - Questionnaire on Women and Civilian Public Service 133
  • Notes 137
  • Bibliography 159
  • Index 175
  • Gender and American Culture 181
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