Angola: Struggle for Peace and Reconstruction

By Inge Tvedten | Go to book overview

However, a basis for a more pluralistic society has been created. Important institutions like the trade unions and various professional associations maintain a relatively independent stand, the church continues its important position both for development and as a refuge for the population, and many of the other institutions and associations created during the early 1990s are still functioning, albeit at a reduced level of activity. As potential channels for public expression, all these institutions will be very important for developments in Angola.


Notes
1.
There is also a lack of data concerning socioeconomic conditions. The figures cited most often are from UNICEF. If not otherwise stated, all data in this chapter are taken from various unpublished and published UNICEF sources (particularly UNICEF 1996).
2.
The Human Development Index is based on a combination of factors related to economic development, level of education, and health.
3.
The studies include Colaço ( 1990), Hurlich ( 1991), and Lagerström and Nilsson ( 1992).
4.
In both cases, the impact of the 1992-1994 war on population figures is still unknown.
5.
The notion of displacement has, for good reason, been much debated. Although many people are ready to go back to their original village or town as soon as conditions permit, many others have instead relocated with no plans to return.
6.
For outlines of ethnic groups in Angola, see Milheiros ( 1967) and Collelo ( 1989).
7.
In addition to these, there are approximately 750 white diplomats and aid workers staying in Angola on a temporary basis.
8.
The atrocities committed by UNITA in these two incidents have not resulted in international demands for war tribunals, as has happened in the cases of Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia. One can only speculate about the reasons for this. It may be yet another example of the dubious attitude of major international actors toward UNITA.
9.
Angolans, the large majority of whom will never be able to enter such stores, will sarcastically point at them when asked what democracy means to them.
10.
The following section is largely based on Sogge ( 1992) and personal observations.
11.
The following section builds on and uses statistics from Campanário and Miranda ( 1990). Although the areas have been more directly affected by the 1992-1994 war, recent information confirms that the economic and social infrastructure has been better maintained there than in the rest of the country ( UNDP 1995a).
12.
The study by Curtis is one of the few that have been done in war-affected areas. The situation has deteriorated even further since 1988, as Malanje was badly affected by the 1992-1994 war. However, the basic problems for women referred to are likely to be the same (see also Curtis 1991).
13.
A number of studies have been carried out in Luanda on specific topics such as education, health, housing conditions, etc., but a study commissioned by UNICEF in 1990 is the only one that tries to draw a broader socioeconomic picture of the situation ( Hunt, Bender, and Devereux 1991). In this case as well, the situation has changed since 1990, with an additional huge influx of people making the current population an estimated 2.7 million. Nevertheless, the basic socioeconomic structure of Luanda is likely to have remained largely the same.

-137-

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Angola: Struggle for Peace and Reconstruction
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Nations of the Modern World: Africa iii
  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Illustrations ix
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - Geographical Setting 3
  • Notes 7
  • 2 - Historical Background 8
  • Notes 33
  • 3 - Political Ideol06y and Practice 35
  • Notes 67
  • 4 - Economic Potential and Performance 70
  • Notes 99
  • 5 - Socioeconomic Conditions and Cultural Traits 101
  • Notes 137
  • 6 - Angola's Future 139
  • Selected Bibliography 145
  • About the Book and Author 153
  • Index 154
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