European Peace Treaties after World War II: Negotiations and Texts of Treaties with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rumania, and Finland

By Amelia C. Leiss; Raymond Dennett | Go to book overview

CHAPTER IV
Common Clauses of the Italian, Bulgarian, Rumanian and Hungarian Treaties

A. PREAMBLES

Although it proved difficult to phrase the preambles of the Treaties of Peace with Italy, Rumania, Hungary and Bulgaria in words which each member of the Council of Foreign Ministers felt exactly described the responsibility of the respective defeated power for the outbreak of the war and the credit which each should receive for getting out of it before the end, few substantive difficulties developed during negotiations of the preambles. In memoranda to the Paris Conference, each of the ex-enemy states urged alterations in the preambles as drafted by the Council to take into account the role played by their peoples in overthrowing the governments which had entered the war on the side of Germany or to indicate that resistance to German forces had pre-dated the actual Armistices with the Allies.1

The respective Political and Territorial Commissions approved the drafts with only minor modifications. In the Bulgarian Commission, a Byelorussian amendment to recognize Bulgarian co-belligerency against Germany was rejected by a vote of 9 to 4.2 The Hungarian Commission rejected a Czechoslovak proposal that Hungary be reproved for complicity in the war and for the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. The United States representative stated that the world had a full understanding of Czechoslovakia's suffering at the hand of Hungary and that the preamble did full justice to the facts of history.3


B. POLITICAL CLAUSES

[For information on other political clauses of the Italian Treaty, see Chapter II; for information on other political clauses of the Balkan Treaties, see Chapter III]


Human Rights in the Ex-Enemy States

[Article 15 of the Italian Treaty,1Article 2 of the Bulgarian and Hungarian Treaties, and Article 3 of the Rumanian Treaty]

One of the basic principles which the United States sought to incorporate into each of the peace treaties was a recognition by the government in ques

____________________
1
For the Italian memorandum, see Paris Conference, Document No. 1 (P); Rumanian, ibid., Document C.P.(GEN)Doc.3, p. 2; Bulgarian, ibid., Document C.P.(GEN)Doc.4, p. 2; Hungarian, ibid., Document C.P.(GEN)Doc.5, p. 2.
1
For information on the release of Italy from obligations to the United States under Article 15, see Documents an American Foreign Relations, XIII, 1951, p. 564-565. For information on alleged violations of these provisions of the Balkan Treaties, see ibid., X, 1949, p. 655-659; ibid., XI, 1950, p. 558-560; ibid., XIII, 1951, p. 536-538.
2
Paris Conference, Document C.P.(PLEN) Doe.22, p. 3.
3
New York Times, August 25, 1946.

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