The Individual and the Political Order: An Introduction to Social and Political Philosophy

By Norman E. Bowie; Robert L. Simon | Go to book overview
commit us to the sort of utilitarianism of rights that the present objection suggests. That is, one can recognize the need for trade-offs without being committed to adopting the policy that maximizes protection of rights or minimizes their violation. Rather, one might want fairness in the distribution of benefits and burdens. For discussion of the need for trade-offs, see George Sher , "Rights Violations and Injustices: Can We always Avoid Trade-Offs," Ethics, Vol. 94. No. 2 ( 1984): 212-24.
39
For example, we can give special weight, over and above that given to other forms of educational disadvantage, to those applicants for college admission who have attended schools which in addition to having poorly funded or otherwise weak educational programs are de facto racially segregated. Or, we can assume that all else being equal, the members of racial minorities, particularly blacks, have encountered special burdens of racial discrimination. Neither dictates that preference will be given to minority applicants over, say, disadvantaged whites, but each insures that their problems will receive special attention. In this way, we can have a "race conscious" policy which is not invidious in that (a) it does not exclude anyone from the competition, (b) it allows us to assign appropriate weight to the special difficulties facing all individuals, and (c) it does not require that members of any particular social group actually be selected.
40
Here we adopt a suggestion made by Drew Days at a conference on civil rights, sponsored by the Center for Philosophy and Public Policy, the University of Maryland, October, 1984.

SUGGESTED READINGS

Bittker Boris. The Case for Black Reparations. New York: Random House, 1973.

Cohen Marshall, Nagel Thomas, and Scanlon Thomas, eds. Equality and Preferential Treatment. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977. Includes classic articles by Ronald Dworkin, Owen F. Fiss, Thomas Nagel, George Sher, Robert Simon, and Judith Jarvis Thomson.

Fullinwider Robert. The Reverse Discrimination Controversy. Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield, 1980.

Goldman Alan. Justice and Reverse Discrimination. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979.

Sindler Allan P. Bakke, DeFunis, and Minority Admissions: The Quest for Equal Opportunity. New York: Longman Publishing Company, 1978.


Articles

Cohen Carl. "Race and the Constitution." The Nation, Vol. 20, No. 5 ( 1973), pp. 135-45.

Ezorsky Gertrude. "Fight Over University Women." The New York Review of Books, Vol. XXI, No. 8 ( 1984), pp. 32-39.

Goldman Alan H. "Affirmative Action." Philosophy & Public Affairs, Vol. 5, No. 2 ( 1976), pp. 178-95.

Newton Lisa. "Reverse Discrimination as Unjustified." Ethics, Vol. 83, No. 4 ( 1973), pp. 308- 12.

Nickel James. "Classification by Race in Compensatory Programs." Ethics, Vol. 84, No. 2 ( 1974), pp. 146-50.

Taylor Paul. "Reverse Discrimination and Compensatory Justice." Analysis, Vol. 33, No. 6 ( 1973), pp. 177-82.

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The Individual and the Political Order: An Introduction to Social and Political Philosophy
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • Introduction 1
  • Selected Readings 5
  • One Love It or Leave It? Individual Conscience and Political Authority 7
  • Suggested Readings 26
  • Two Utilitarianism 28
  • Notes 46
  • Notes 47
  • Three Natural Rights: Meaning and Justification 72
  • Notes 74
  • Suggested Readings 75
  • Four Justice 77
  • Suggested Readings 112
  • Five Democracy and Political Obligation 114
  • Suggested Readings 140
  • Six Liberty 141
  • Notes 168
  • Notes 170
  • Seven Law and Order 171
  • Articles 201
  • Eight an Evaluation of Preferential Treatment 202
  • Notes 228
  • Notes 230
  • Nine Ethics and International Affairs 231
  • Notes 257
  • Notes 259
  • Index 260
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