Psychology of the Child and the Adolescent

By Robert I. Watson; Henry Clay Lindgren | Go to book overview

ready" is aware of the validity of this formula. To the frustrated parent, it seems as though the infant is "just not trying." He can utter all the sounds that make up spoken words and can say things that are wordlike. Wanting to talk is certainly a factor, of course, but the point is that talking requires the maturation of a great many complexly interrelated muscles and controls, and hence cannot appear until the infant is neurologically and physiologically "ready."


summary

Although growth is basic to all development, the term growth is usually applied to changes in size and complexity, whereas development refers to changes in character or function. Growth ceases with maturity, but development continues throughout the life span. It is difficult to observe the process of development, and our conclusions must be based on data gathered at different points in time.

At the point of conception, the basic patterns for the neurophysical development of the individual are set by genes: large and complex molecules found in chromosomes, which in turn are located in the nuclei of living cells. Half of the 46 chromosomes contained in each cell are contributed by one parent, and half by the other. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) provides the chemical basis for genetic transmission, and ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules are the "messengers" that determine the structure and function of body tissue. The complex process of rearranging and trading genes between chromosomes which takes place shortly after conception, results in a virtually infinite number of possible genetic combinations. Genetic effects are most obviously detected in physical traits common to families; shared behavioral traits are harder to pin down and may be caused by social inheritance. Research on genetic transmission of physical traits has focused on defects or abnormalities, like hemophilia or allergy to ragweed pollens. The chromosomal abnormality of the type known as, XYY for example, has been thought to predispose males to violent aggressive behavior, but review of research indicates that the risk has been exaggerated. Environmental stresses, such as are experienced by children raised by adults who mistreat them, are more likely causes of deviant behavior in later years.

Human beings are plastic organisms, in the sense that they can acquire an endless variety of behavior patterns. Hence it is difficult to determine whether individual and group differences are brought about by genetic causes or by environmental ones. The relative effects of these two sources have been studied through the observation of identical (monozygotic or MZ) twins and of unlike (dizygotic or DZ) twins. Such studies permit some control of genetic and environmental factors, inasmuch as MZ twins have identical genetic elements, whereas the

-92-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Psychology of the Child and the Adolescent
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 626

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.