The Battle for Public Opinion: The President, the Press, and the Polls during Watergate

By Gladys Engel Lang; Kurt Lang | Go to book overview

NOTES

Presidential statements as well as some others by high officials and punic figures that have no reference other than the date given in the text were taken from the Presidential Papers and similar public records. Many poll figures similarly identified in the text by date of survey only were obtained either directly from the polling organizations or from releases of polling organizations.


1. OVERTURNING A LANDSLIDE
1.
George H. Gallup, The Gallup Poll: Public Opinion 1935-1971 ( New York: Random House, 1972); ibid., 1972- 1977 ( Wilmington, Del.: Scholarly Resources, Inc., 1978).
2.
Richard M. Nixon, RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon ( New York: Grosset and Dunlap, 1978), pp. 971, 972.
3.
W. Phillips Davison, The Berlin Blockade: A Study in Cold-War Politics. ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1958).
4.
Bernard J. Cohen, The Political Process and Foreign Policy: The Making of the Japanese Peace Treaty ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1957); Leon Sigal, Reporters and Officials: The Organization and Politics of Newsmaking ( Lexington, Mass.: D. C. Heath, 1973); Todd Gitlin, The Whole World is Watching ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980).
5.
Joseph T. Klapper, The Effects of Mass Communications (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1960).
6.
For a critique of these studies, see Kurt Lang and Gladys Engel Lang, "Mass Media and Voting," in Eugene Burdick and Arthur J. Brodbeck, eds. American Voting Behavior, pp. 217-35 (Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press, 1959).
7.
Elihu Katz, Jay Blumler, and Michael Gurevitch, "The Utilization of Mass Communication by the Individual," in Elihu Katz and Jay Blumler, eds. The Uses of Mass Communication: Current Perspectives in Gratification Research, pp. 35ff ( Beverly Hills: Sage, 1974).
8.
Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw, "The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media," Public Opinion Quarterly ( 1972) 36:176-87.
9.
Herbert Gans, Deciding What's News ( New York: Pantheon, 1979); Philip Schlesinger , Putting Reality Together ( London: Constable, 1978); Gaye Tuchman, Making News ( New York: Free Press, 1978); and David Altheide, Creating Reality: How TV News Distorts Events ( Beverly Hills: Sage, 1976).
10.
Kurt Lang and Gladys Engel Lang, Collective Dynamics ( New York: T. Y. Crowell, 1961), ch. 14.
11.
Fred Davis, "A Watergate Afterthought: Muted by the Media or the Anesthetization of Chaos."

-319-

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