The Iran-Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression

By Farhang Rajaee | Go to book overview

11
International Law: Observations and Violations

BAHMAN BAKTIARI

Since the days of antiquity, sovereign political units have sought to regulate their relations by adopting rules and institutions designed to replace self-help and violence as prevalent methods for settling disputes. Historically, international law is a set of rules and principles of action that are binding on civilized states in their relations with one another. Rules of international law have existed since humans began to organize into political communities, where they felt the need of some system of rules, however rudimentary, to regulate their intercommunity relations. Thus, the adequacy of international law is a function of its acceptability.

Beginning in the sixteenth century, the writings of great scholars of international law refined its context and purpose so that it could become a major source of identification among states. Francisco de Vitoria wrote about the justice of Spanish conquests in America in 1557. Alberico Gentili ( 1598) and Francisco Suárez ( 1612) elaborated on the doctrines of just and unjust war, maintaining that a war was considered just if it was fought in self-defense, that is, against external attack, or if its purpose was to punish wrongdoers. They further differentiated natural law (jus naturale) from the law practiced by nations (jus gentium). Dutchman Hugo Grotius established himself as the "father of international law" with the publication of his famous book De Jure Belli ac Pacis (Law of War and Peace) in 1625. 1

Thus, since its modern inception, the central focus of international law has been to limit or justify war and violence in international relations. 2 In the nineteenth century, new laws of neutrality established def

-152-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Iran-Iraq War: The Politics of Aggression
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 248

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.