Midterm: The Elections of 1994 in Context

By Philip A. Klinkner | Go to book overview

NOTES
1.
The loss in Senate seats rose to 9 the day after the election when Alabama Democrat Richard Shelby announced that he was switching parties and to 10 a few months later when Colorado Democrat Ben Nighthorse Campbell also decided to cross the aisle.
2.
While it has been only 40 years ( 1954) since the Republicans last controlled Congress, it has been 42 years ( 1952) since the Republicans had been able to win a majority of seats in the elections for the House and Senate.
3.
For example, in 1982 the Republicans had lost only 26 seats, despite the fact that the economy had been in the worst recession since the Great Depression. Also, the inability of political science models to come even reasonably close to predicting the outcome of the election provides evidence for this assertion ( Wilcox 1995: 9; Abramson, Aldrich, and Rohde 1995: 323)
4.
Court-and-Country divisions both preceded and carried on past this period, but it was during this time when the conflict was at its height. In addition, while the Whigs were generally associated in this era with Court persuasion and the Tories with the Country, the partisan orientation of the Court-and-Country divide was highly fluid, and thus, party labels provide only a very rough guide to the often-shifting nature of English politics in decades after 1688.
5.
The best sources on Court-and-Country politics in England in this period are Webb ( 1980), Jones ( 1978), Owen ( 1974), and Holmes ( 1987). Analyses of Court-and- Country politics in America's early national period and their connections to earlier Court- and-Country divisions in English history are found in Elkins and McKitrick ( 1993), Banning ( 1978), Murrin ( 1980), and Pocock ( 1975).

Though the connection is not explicitly made by historians, there are also elements of Court-and-Country politics in America during the Progressive Era. Once again, public opinion became deeply concerned over the corruption of politics. Progressive reformers, in their desire to institute the direct election of U.S. Senators, anticorruption laws, civil service, and limits on the power of political parties, bore more than a passing resemblance to the Country politicians in England 200 years previously who advocated Place Acts to make government more responsive to the public. Much like the Anti-Federalists and Jeffersonians of the previous century, they sought lower tariffs and reform of the system of taxation, and they feared the corrosive effect that industrialization and urbanization would have on the health of both political and civil society. While there are also important dissimilarities, the connections between these periods deserve closer scrutiny.

6.
Periods of Court-versus-Country politics seem to have overlapped important economic transformations. In eighteenth century England and in America's early national period, Court-and-Country divisions arose out of the development of a commercial economy in the cities and the movement away from a political and economic system based upon agriculture and landed wealth. If one extends the Court-and-Country description to the Progressive Era, it would seem to correspond to the nation's shift toward urbanization and industrialization. In contemporary America, the rise of Court-and-Country politics has come in conjunction with the shift away from a domestic industrial economy to an information and service economy increasingly tied to global markets.
7.
One can further add that previous settlements of Court-and-Country disputes in American history favored the Country side. The Jeffersonians triumphed while the

-78-

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Midterm: The Elections of 1994 in Context
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Transforming American Politics ii
  • Forthcoming Titles iii
  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • 1: The 1994 House Elections in Perspective 1
  • Notes 20
  • 2: Eight More in '94: The Republican Takeover of the Senate 21
  • Notes 45
  • 3: "Permanent Minority" No More: House Republicans in 1994 47
  • Notes 60
  • 4: Court and Country in American Politics: The Democratic Party and the 1994 Election 61
  • Notes 78
  • 5: Money in the 1994 Elections and Beyond 81
  • Conclusion 94
  • 6: The 1994 Electoral Aftershock: Dealignment Or Realignment in the South 99
  • Conclusion 110
  • 7: The Politics of Pragmatism: The Christian Right and the 1994 Elections 115
  • 8: In Search of the Angry White Male: Gender, Race, and Issues in the 1994 Elections 125
  • Notes 136
  • 9: Re-Exploring the Weak-Challenger Hypothesis: The 1994 Candidate Pools 137
  • Notes 153
  • 10: Innovative Midterm Elections 157
  • Notes 170
  • References 171
  • About the Book 183
  • About the Editor and Contributors 185
  • Index 189
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