Multi-Party Politics in Kenya: The Kenyatta & Moi States & the Triumph of the System in the 1992 Election

By David W. Throup; Charles Hornsby | Go to book overview
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multiple voting and defections. There is no point in holding free elections if the primaries that select the candidates are rigged, especially when many constituencies are dominated by one particular party. The abuse of the party primary process provided a warning sign for the final elections on 29 December.
Notes
1. Since 1974, the city's economic importance, and the concentration of élites in the area, had ensured that many of its seats have been represented by political heavyweights, despite the urban electorate's volatility. Nairobi's political influence was greatest during the immediate post-independence period, reaching a peak in 1966 when four of the city's eight MPs were in the Cabinet. Matiba's former close ally Charles Rubia served as the city's first African Mayor from 1963 to 1969, as Minister for Local Government, Urban Development and Housing from 1979 to 1983 and for 19 years as the MP for the city centre Starehe constituency, until he was rigged out of Parliament in 1988. The other Nairobi MPs who have served in the Cabinet are Tom Mboya ( 1963-9), former Vice-President Joe Murumbi ( 1963-6), Dr Njoroge Mungai ( 1963-74 and 1990-January 1992), Mwai Kibaki ( 1966-74), Munyua Waiyaki ( 1974-83), Maina Wanjigi ( 1983-90), Vice-President Josephat Karanja ( 1988-9) and Philip Leakey ( 1992). In recent years, however, the capital's political influence has declined, and for most of the period since 1983, the city has had only one Cabinet Minister.
2. See Daily Nation, 3 November 1992, p. 1 for Makau's defections and reasons.
3. Sources: Standard and Daily Nation, October-November 1992.
4. General Gachui, Nominated MP, Standard, 2 November 1992, p. 1.
5. Daily Nation, 18 October 1992, p. 1.
6. Daily Nation, 21 October 1992, p. 1.
7. Daily Nation, 18 October 1992, p. 4.
8. Daily Nation, 19 October 1999, p. 28.
9. Daily Nation, 17 October 1992, p. 28.
10. Despite this, the KNC could not avoid local candidates standing against the DP in Nairobi, nor prevent Dr Chibule wa Tsuma from appointing himself the party's Presidential candidate, as their lawyer failed to serve the court order on him personally to prevent his nomination.
11. Since she probably did not know. See Daily Nation, 22 October 1992, p. 1.
12. Daily Nation, 23 October 1992.
13. They assured the editor of Africa Confidential that they would secure an overall majority in the National Assembly, for example.
14. Daily Nation, 25 October 1992, p. 1.
15. Daily Nation, 2 November 1992, p. 2.
16. Daily Nation, 3 November 1992, p. 24.
17. Newsletter of the Archdiocese of Nairobi, Vol. VI, Nos 9-12 (September-December 1992). Also see Kenya Times, 23 December 1992, p. 4.
18. Sunday Nation, 29 November 1992, p. 11.
19. See D. W. Throup, "'The Construction and Destruction of the Kenyatta State'", in M. G. Schatzberg (ed.), The Political Economy of Kenya, p. 66.
20. Watchman, January 1993, p. 13.
21. There had been attempts in the late summer to challenge him internally, but none of the major figures in the party participated. Only a minor 35-year-old businessman, Charles Onyambu, and Paul Ngei (ineligible) openly challenged Moi. Ngei foolishly challenged Moi on 14 July 1992. See Ngei's interview in Society, 10 August, 1992, pp. 44-5. His bankruptcy was not annulled, however, leading him eventually to defect to the DP.
22. FORD-Kenya Constitution Part IV, article 12.
23. According to John Keen, the elections occurred at a secret DP Delegates' Conference. The DP announced its election rules in September, but stated that the regulations were confidential and that the election date was also secret, trying to avoid the problems experienced by other parties. ( Daily Nation, 9 September 1992, p. 4) This probably meant

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