Multi-Party Politics in Kenya: The Kenyatta & Moi States & the Triumph of the System in the 1992 Election

By David W. Throup; Charles Hornsby | Go to book overview
over power to any other group at any point in the foreseeable future. The deep tensions created by the ethnic clashes, the government's strategy of manipulating communal rivalries and the ethnic nature of multi-party politics in the country have seriously damaged Kenya's national identity -- with a reversion towards the ethnic community, not the country, as the primary focus of identity. It is likely that the intrinsic economic instability which liberalism creates will eventually bring the KANU government down, but this will take many years. As long as President Moi himself remains in sound health, his coalition is likely to remain intact, and KANU will retain power until the millennium. In Kenya at least, in the multi-party democracy crisis of the early 1990s, the ancient regime survived: the system triumphed.
Notes
1. Jennifer A. Widner, The Rise of A Party-State ( Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), passim.
2. Ibid., p. 224.
3. The circulation of the magazines plummeted After the election, falling from approximately 40,000 per issue at the peak of political interest to only 4,000 in 1993. As a result, many pro-opposition magazines, denied government advertising, were forced out of business during the two years after the election. This was the consequence of impending bankruptcy as much as of continuing harassment from the authorities (although this continued as well). Only the Economic Review, the best and most cautious, survived because of its specialist niche in the market.
4. During the next three years some established figures returned to the fold, most notably Kimani wa Nyoike, who by 1995 was operating as Matiba's leading adviser and de facto Secretary General of the Matiba faction.
5. J. M. Lonsdale, "'States and social processes in Africa'", African Studies Review, Vol. 24, Nos 2-3 ( 1981).
6. The 1995 KAMATUSA-GEMA talks marked the beginning of an attempt by Kikuyu business leaders and politicians to reopen dialogue with the regime, outlining the terms of a post-Mai accommodation between the Kalenjin and Kikuyu élites. This potential alliance is embodied in the person of Vice-president Saitoti.
7. Various editions of the pro-opposition magazine Society provided graphic accounts of the ethnic clashes. See especially the issues of 9 March 1992, pp. 6-9; 4 May 1992, pp. 6-12; 11 May 1992, pp. 8-18; and 25 May 1992, pp. 9-18.
8. See above, especially Chapter 8.
9. At a meeting in the American Embassy on 30 December 1992, the day after the General Election, senior Embassy and USAID officials acknowledged that little more could be done on the political front. The government had gambled and won. In the future, leverage on the Moi regime would have to focus on economic reforms. See the Economist Intelligence Unit's Quarterly Country Reports during 1993 and 1994. Kenya's economic performance improved dramatically during 1994, but Western donors became increasingly concerned not only about the deteriorating budgetary position but also about declining human rights. This resulted in a meeting of the Paris Group to reconsider Kenya's case at the end of July 1995.
10. Kenneth Matiba remains popular among poorer Kikuyu voters in Muralig'a And Nairobi (although he has lost ground in Kiambu) and might still secure 15 per cent of the Presidential vote in 1997.
11. David W. Throup, "'The construction and destruction of the Kenyatta state'", in Michael G. Schatzberg (ed.), The Political Economy of Kenya ( New York: Praeger, 1987).
12. Perhaps best exemplified by George I. Godia short book, Understanding Nyayo: Principles and Policies in Contemporary Kenya ( Nairobi: Transafrica, 1984).

-603-

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Multi-Party Politics in Kenya: The Kenyatta & Moi States & the Triumph of the System in the 1992 Election
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Contents iii
  • Figures, Tables & Photographs v
  • Acknowledgements viii
  • One - Introduction 1
  • Two - The Independence Struggle the Development of Political Consciousness 7
  • Three - The Creation of the Moi State 26
  • Notes 51
  • Four - The Regime in Crisis, January 1990-December 1991 54
  • Notes 88
  • Five - The Rise and Fall of the Opposition, December 1991-October 1992 92
  • Notes 164
  • Six - Kanu Fights Back December 1991-October 1992 173
  • Notes 237
  • Seven - The Electoral Process 242
  • Notes 285
  • Eight - The Beginnings of the Campaign & the Party Primaries 288
  • Notes 335
  • Nine - The Election Campaign 339
  • Notes 417
  • Ten - Election Day & the Results 424
  • Notes 451
  • Eleven - Why Kanu Won 453
  • Notes 527
  • Twelve - Kanu Rules the Nation 533
  • Thirteen - Conclusions the Emergence of Multi-Party Competition 582
  • Notes 603
  • Appendices 604
  • Index 642
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