CHAPTER II

Eighteenth-Century Conditions

THE INGRAINED LOVE of personal liberty inherent in the British people and their distrust in giving additional power to their governments made Great Britain one of the slowest countries in the world to institute police. Jurists were far in advance of public opinion. Jeremy Bentham ( 1747- 1832) considered police necessary as a means to prevent crimes and calamities as well as to correct and cure them. Blackstone in his Commentaries ( 1765) wrote:

By public police and economy I mean the due regulation and domestic order of the kingdom, whereby the individuals of the State, like members of a well-governed family, are bound to conform their general behaviour to the rules of propriety, good neighbourhood and good manners; to be decent, industrious, and inoffensive in their respective stations.

The French kings seem to have been the first in modern times to establish a police system. As early as the fourteenth century Charles V instituted police "to increase the happiness and security of his people." The police system was destined soon to become an engine of oppression that deprived the people of the commonest rights and privileges, prescribed their diet and their dress, and forbade them to move from place to place without leave. Louis XIV enormously increased the powers of the police, with the excellent object of giving security to a city in which crime, disorder, and dirt flourished unchecked, but in doing this he crushed

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