Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking

By Diane F. Halpern | Go to book overview
Developing an awareness of the influence of stereotypes and other beliefs on what we remember.
Making abstract information meaningful as an aid to comprehension and recall.
Using advance organizers to anticipate new information.
Organizing information so that it can be recalled more easily.
Generating retrieval cues at both acquisition and retrieval.
Monitoring how well you are learning.
Using external memory aids.
Employing keywords and images, rhymes, places, and first letters, as internal memory aids.
Applying the cognitive interview techniques.
Developing an awareness of biases in memory.
4. Have You Reached Your Goal? Suppose that you selected the keyword mnemonic for foreign language learning to learn a list of technical terms in a course in physics. You go through the list, generate familiar English words that sound like the ones you're trying to learn, and so on. (You cleverly adapted the technique for use with words that may as well be from a foreign language as far as you're concerned.) The effort doesn't stop there. Go over the list "cold" (without your notes and with their definitions covered). Distribute your learning and overlearn. Do you know the words? If not, go through the technique as many times as needed to pass this quality assurance test. As mentioned in the first chapter, parts of this framework may have to be reiterated. You may need to select a different mnemonic if the first one isn't getting you to your goal. Try singing the words and their definitions. (Sure, your roommate will think you're strange. So what!) These steps call for careful monitoring of progress, persistence, and flexibility until you find a strategy that works.
CHAPTER SUMMARY
1. Memory was described as the mediator of cognitive processes because all of our thoughts depend on the ability to use what we have stored in memory.
2. There are many different varieties of memory, and what and how you learn and remember will depend on the type of information, what you already know, the length of the retention interval, and noncognitive factors like health and motivation.
3. There are many learning strategies that reflect the fact that all learning is not the same. Good learners will know what they have to do to learn and remember, and they will do it.
4. It is important to attend to information that you want to learn and to monitor how well you are learning.
5. Our memories are not perfect true "copies" of events that have occurred. Prior knowledge, subsequent knowledge, stereotypes, and meaningfulness of the material all influence what will be remembered.
6. Memory can be improved with appropriate retrieval cues and good organization.
7. Working memory is the term used for the "place" in which we consciously think. It has a seriously limited capacity that we can control by deciding which information to attend to and how much effort a particular task is worth.
8. Mnemonics improve recall because they utilize the basic memory principles of attention, organization, meaningfulness and chunking. The mnemonics presented

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Thought and Knowledge: An Introduction to Critical Thinking
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Preface xi
  • Acknowledgments xiii
  • Acknowledgments for the First Edition xiii
  • 1 - Thinking: an Introduction 1
  • Chapter Summary 32
  • 2 - Memory: The Acquisition Retention, and Retrieval of Knowledge 36
  • Chapter Summary 70
  • 3 - The Relationship Between Thought and Language 75
  • Chapter Summary 115
  • 4 - Reasoning: Drawing Deductively Valid Conclusions 118
  • Chapter Summary 162
  • 5 - Analyzing Arguments 167
  • Chapter Summary 207
  • 6 - Thinking as Hypothesis Testing 212
  • Chapter Summary 237
  • 7 - Likelihood and Uncertainty: Understanding Probabilities 241
  • Chapter Summary 277
  • 8 - Decision Making 281
  • Chapter Summary 313
  • 9 - Development of Problem-Solving Skills 317
  • Chapter Summary 360
  • 10 - Creativethinking 364
  • Chapter Summary 389
  • 11 - The Last Word 393
  • References 395
  • Author Index 409
  • Subject Index 415
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