Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English

By Sidney Greenbaum | Go to book overview

6
ICE Annotation Tools

AKIVA QUINN and NICK PORTER

A key aspect of the International Corpus of English (ICE) is the detailed linguistic annotation it contains. Providing annotations for textual features, word classes, syntactic categories, and functions allows comparisons to be conducted along many axes. Transforming a raw input file into a properly annotated text can involve much work, so software tools have been developed to keep this effort to a minimum. This paper describes three programs produced by the Survey of English Usage for machine-assisted annotation. The Markup Assistant automates the insertion of textual markup, generating ICE markup symbols at a single key press and ensuring that markup symbols are closed. The ICE Tag Selection System automates the selection from the alternative word-class tags generated by an automatic word-class tagger. The ICE Syntactic Marking System automates the addition of syntactic markers to texts prior to parsing by an automatic parser. The ICE Syntactic Tree annotator complements automatic parsing by providing a graphical environment for the manual editing of syntactic analyses.


1. THE ICE MARKUP ASSISTANT

The ICE Markup Assistant automates and simplifies key presses for the insertion of the standard set of ICE markup symbols used throughout the project. ICE uses Standard Generalised Markup Language (SGML) to encode, in a machine- independent manner, a range of typographic and content features, and the structure of a text. Implemented as a set of macros under WordPerfect, the text unit markup is inserted automatically at probable sentence boundaries--after each full stop, question mark, and exclamation mark in the text that is followed by a space or an end of line. Having the majority of text units correctly inserted saves time, and additional text units inserted after abbreviations can easily be deleted. Reduced key presses are provided for all the standard ICE markup symbols. Most markup types require an open and close symbol for each sequence that forms a paragraph, appears in boldface, and so on. For instance the following sequence represents two words in boldface:

-65-

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Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Contributors xi
  • List of Figures xiii
  • List of Tables xv
  • Abbreviations xvi
  • Part I Introduction 1
  • 1: Introducing ICe 3
  • References 12
  • 2: Learner English Around the World 13
  • References 23
  • Part II Compilation and Annotation 25
  • 3: The Design of the Corpus 27
  • References 35
  • 4: Markup Systems 36
  • Notes 45
  • References 45
  • 5: The Umb Intelligent ICe Markup Assistant 54
  • References 64
  • 6: ICe Annotation Tools 65
  • 7: Developing the ICe Corpus Utility Program 79
  • 8: About the ICe Tagset 92
  • 9: Autasys: Grammatical Tagging and Cross-Tagset Mapping 110
  • 10: An Outline of the Survey's ICe Parsing Scheme 125
  • Reference 139
  • 11: The Survey Parser: Design and Development 142
  • References 157
  • Part III Problems of Implementation 161
  • 12: The New Zealand Spoken Component of ICe: Some Methodological Challenges1 163
  • References 177
  • 13: Second-Language Corpora1 182
  • References 195
  • 14: The International Corpus of English in Hong Kong 197
  • References 213
  • Part IV Applications 215
  • 15: The Corpus as A Research Domain 217
  • 16: ICe and Teaching 227
  • 17: The Sociolinguistics of English in Nigeria and the ICe Project 239
  • 18: Why A Fiji Corpus? 249
  • References 260
  • 19: Prosice: A Spoken English Database for Prosody Research 262
  • References 278
  • Index 281
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