Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English

By Sidney Greenbaum | Go to book overview

8
About the ICE Tagset

SIDNEY GREENBAUM and NI YIBIN

The ICE tagset was devised by the Survey of English Usage. It is based on the tagset that was developed by the TOSCA Research Group at the University of Nijmegen, though the two differ substantially. The ICE tagset distinguishes nineteen word classes:

adjective ADJ
Adverb ADV
Article ART
Auxiliary AUX
Conjunction CONJUNC
Connective CONNEC
existential there EXTHERE
formulaic expression FRM
genitive marker GENM
Interjection INTERJEC
nominal adjective NADJ
Noun N
Numeral NUM
Particle PRTCL
Preposition PREP
Proform PROFM
Pronoun PRON
reactional signal REACT
Verb v

One of these classes is confined to just one item: existential there.

One or more features may be associated with a word class, and these are shown in parentheses as part of the tag. The tag as a whole is enclosed in angle brackets. For example, isn't in [1] is tagged as belonging to the class of verbs 〈0〉〉 and in addition as having the features present (pres), copular (cop), and negative (neg):

[1] Hugo has taken a dislike to Isaac Simons, but it 〈't 〈V(cop,〉s,neg)〉 personal. (W2F-016-133)

-92-

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Comparing English Worldwide: The International Corpus of English
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface vii
  • Contents ix
  • List of Contributors xi
  • List of Figures xiii
  • List of Tables xv
  • Abbreviations xvi
  • Part I Introduction 1
  • 1: Introducing ICe 3
  • References 12
  • 2: Learner English Around the World 13
  • References 23
  • Part II Compilation and Annotation 25
  • 3: The Design of the Corpus 27
  • References 35
  • 4: Markup Systems 36
  • Notes 45
  • References 45
  • 5: The Umb Intelligent ICe Markup Assistant 54
  • References 64
  • 6: ICe Annotation Tools 65
  • 7: Developing the ICe Corpus Utility Program 79
  • 8: About the ICe Tagset 92
  • 9: Autasys: Grammatical Tagging and Cross-Tagset Mapping 110
  • 10: An Outline of the Survey's ICe Parsing Scheme 125
  • Reference 139
  • 11: The Survey Parser: Design and Development 142
  • References 157
  • Part III Problems of Implementation 161
  • 12: The New Zealand Spoken Component of ICe: Some Methodological Challenges1 163
  • References 177
  • 13: Second-Language Corpora1 182
  • References 195
  • 14: The International Corpus of English in Hong Kong 197
  • References 213
  • Part IV Applications 215
  • 15: The Corpus as A Research Domain 217
  • 16: ICe and Teaching 227
  • 17: The Sociolinguistics of English in Nigeria and the ICe Project 239
  • 18: Why A Fiji Corpus? 249
  • References 260
  • 19: Prosice: A Spoken English Database for Prosody Research 262
  • References 278
  • Index 281
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