International Business-Government Communications: U.S. Structures, Actors, and Issues

By Jack N. Behrman; J. J. Boddewyn et al. | Go to book overview

3
Intelligence Networks: The Collection, Evaluation, and Dissemination of Information

Effectiveness in influencing policy formation and implementation requires an intelligence network both within the company and through outside services and intermediaries (including U.S. embassies).


The Intelligence Function

A distinction can be made between information and intelligence to the extent that the former is more general in nature and even publicly available (e.g., about the investment climate in a particular country); while intelligence (including its interpretation) is more related to the specific needs of a company and less public, thereby requiring greater efforts as well as pronounced reliance on personal contacts. The problems connected with collecting, evaluating, disseminating, and using such information and intelligence are both general and special in nature.

For one thing, business executives tend to react to their environment as developments come to their attention, rather than to anticipate them through systematic forecasting; and they prefer personal sources of information based on networks of oral communication over impersonal ones (e.g., newspapers and magazines)--particularly at higher echelons.1

In addition, executives are unable or reluctant to acknowledge the relevance of strategic environmental information-especially when it comes from inside the company. This phenomenon seems to be related to a lack of confidence in their subordinates' ability to recognize or interpret the real significance of external developments; but it results in subordinates lacking proper feelings or instructions about what their superiors want in the way of information, in a "mountain of facts without meaning," and in discouragement about the pointlessness of intelligence work.

Higher levels often have privileged sources of information that they do not share, if only to test the quality of the information they receive from their subordinates. The latter are asked to transmit information that will be used to evaluate their performance; and they tend consequently to filter what they communicate upwards. Long lines of communication are also likely to increase distortion; while the status of the information-bearer bears heavily upon his credibility and influence.

While specialization is essential for the efficient command of knowledge, it is

-45-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
International Business-Government Communications: U.S. Structures, Actors, and Issues
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 206

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.