Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work

By Kim J. Vicente | Go to book overview
some variables (e.g., energy) that we might like to measure but that cannot be sensed with existing technology. It may be possible to derive these variables analytically from other sensed data using models or rules. However, the resulting data are still limited by the reliability of the original sensor readings and the fidelity of the models or rules used for the derivation. Fourth, the data are also limited by the number and placement of sensors. If sensors are not available in certain places, then the true state of the work domain in that location may be uncertain.
10. Mediated interaction via computers --As with most other process control systems, many of the variables that describe the state of DURESS II (e.g., energy in the reservoir, heat transfer from the heater) cannot be directly and reliably observed by unaided human perceptual systems. In the past, these variables were displayed to workers using traditional analogue instruments, which thereby served as a mediating representation between workers and work domain. More recently, computer interfaces are being increasingly used to serve this essential function.
11. Disturbances --Like all process control systems, DURESS II is an open system that is subject to different types of disturbances. For example, although the temperature of the incoming water is supposed to be 10°C, it is possible for the water to be warmer or cooler because of some unforeseen influence. Furthermore, the components themselves are subject to failures. For instance, the valves can fail open or shut, the reservoirs can leak, and the heaters can transfer heat at a greater or lesser rate than they are supposed to for a given heater setting. In addition, it is possible for multiple, independent failures to occur simultaneously. During many of these situations, the automation would not be able to compensate effectively, so it would be up to the workers to intervene and satisfy system purposes in the face of disturbances.

SUMMARY

This chapter has introduced the process control microworld that is used as a case study in this book. In the five chapters that follow, this case study is used to illustrate most of the five layers of behavior-shaping constraints defined by CWA (see Fig. 5.8).2 By complementing the information retrieval example presented in detail by Rasmussen et al. ( 1994) and summarized in chapter 12, we thereby show that the very same set of concepts can be consistently used to model two diverse application domains in a manner that reveals important insights for systems design.

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2
DURESS II is only a microworld simulation rather than an actual industrial process. As a result, the CWA representations we develop for DURESS II will be different from those that would be developed for an industrial process. This qualifier is particularly true of the first phase of CWA, work domain analysis. Despite this reduced level of richness, however, the CWA models we present for DURESS II should serve our primary goal of enhancing your understanding of the CWA framework.

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Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xviii
  • Introduction- I 1
  • What''s in a Word? (Glossary) 3
  • 1- What''s the Problem? Scope and Criteria for Success 33
  • Why Work Analysis? an Ecological Perspective 2 47
  • Summary 57
  • Conclusion 58
  • II- Three Approaches to Work Analysis 59
  • 3- Normative Approaches to Work Analysis. "The One Best Way?" 61
  • Conclusions 86
  • 4- Descriptive Approaches So to Work Analysis 101
  • 5- Toward a Formative Approach to Work Analysis 136
  • III- Cognitive Work Analysis in Action 137
  • 6- Case Study- Process Control 147
  • 7- Phase I- Work Domain Analysis 155
  • Phase 2- Control Task Analysis 8 181
  • 9- Phase 3- Strategies Analysis 215
  • 10- Phase 4 245
  • 11- Phase 5 296
  • 12- Implications for Design and Research 303
  • Summary 334
  • Final Words IV 335
  • 13- Designing for Adaptation 337
  • Appendix- Historical Addendum 361
  • References 367
  • Author Index 383
  • Subject Index 389
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