Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work

By Kim J. Vicente | Go to book overview

Appendix: Historical Addendum

PURPOSE

Sometimes, when a set of ideas is presented in a rational, logical form, as we have tried to do throughout this book, readers are left with uneasy, lingering questions about the origins of those ideas. Where did all these concepts come from? Are they just idle, armchair speculations? Are they merely based on one person's private intuitions? Are they based on any empirical foundation? If so, were the data collected under conditions that are representative of the settings and situations to which we are interested in applying these concepts (i.e., complex sociotechnical systems requiring worker adaptation)? The purpose of this Appendix is to answer these questions by providing a very brief historical overview of the studies and insights conducted between 1962 and 1979 that eventually led to the framework that we have described in this book (cf. Sanderson & Harwood, 1988). Putting CWA into its historical context should help us better appreciate, not just the origins of the framework, but also the research infrastructure that may be necessary for cognitive engineering to flourish.


RISØ NATIONAL LABORATORY

The ideas presented in this book grew out of a research program conducted in the Electronics Department of Risø National Laboratory in Roskilde, Denmark. Risø National Laboratory (or Research Establishment Risø, as it was first known) was created in 1956 and Niels Bohr, the Danish Nobel laureate in physics, served as its first chairman of the board. Risø was given the charge of conducting research so that Denmark could effectively implement nuclear power within 5 years. Remarkably, this 5-year window was maintained for over a quarter of a century until it was decided that Denmark would not have any commercial nuclear power plants!

During this quarter century, Risø fostered an exceptionally unique environment for conducting research. Originally, the laboratory's funding came from the Danish Ministry of Finance, providing a vast supply of financial support. There was no requirement at all to bring in large research contracts from external funding agencies. Furthermore, there was no requirement to publish research results in academic journals. Instead, much of the work described herein was published in an internal series of green technical reports. Although Risø had collaborations with Danish universities, its researchers were not required to teach classes, supervise graduate students, or take on extensive administrative responsibilities. What they were required to do was conduct research to address a practical problem of great social relevance--

____________________
1
This chapter has been adapted with permission from Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 41st Annual Meeting, pp. 210-214, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, Inc. All right reserved.

-361-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Foreword ix
  • Preface xiii
  • Acknowledgments xviii
  • Introduction- I 1
  • What''s in a Word? (Glossary) 3
  • 1- What''s the Problem? Scope and Criteria for Success 33
  • Why Work Analysis? an Ecological Perspective 2 47
  • Summary 57
  • Conclusion 58
  • II- Three Approaches to Work Analysis 59
  • 3- Normative Approaches to Work Analysis. "The One Best Way?" 61
  • Conclusions 86
  • 4- Descriptive Approaches So to Work Analysis 101
  • 5- Toward a Formative Approach to Work Analysis 136
  • III- Cognitive Work Analysis in Action 137
  • 6- Case Study- Process Control 147
  • 7- Phase I- Work Domain Analysis 155
  • Phase 2- Control Task Analysis 8 181
  • 9- Phase 3- Strategies Analysis 215
  • 10- Phase 4 245
  • 11- Phase 5 296
  • 12- Implications for Design and Research 303
  • Summary 334
  • Final Words IV 335
  • 13- Designing for Adaptation 337
  • Appendix- Historical Addendum 361
  • References 367
  • Author Index 383
  • Subject Index 389
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Full screen
/ 394

matching results for page

Cited passage

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Sign up now to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

"Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited passage

Welcome to the new Questia Reader

The Questia Reader has been updated to provide you with an even better online reading experience.  It is now 100% Responsive, which means you can read our books and articles on any sized device you wish.  All of your favorite tools like notes, highlights, and citations are still here, but the way you select text has been updated to be easier to use, especially on touchscreen devices.  Here's how:

1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
2. Click or tap the last word you want to select.

OK, got it!

Thanks for trying Questia!

Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

For full access in an ad-free environment, sign up now for a FREE, 1-day trial.

Already a member? Log in now.