Human-Computer Interaction: Communication, Cooperation, and Application Design

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview
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2 Method

2.1 Tasks

The LEGO pieces that were a toy for infants were used for assembly task. Eighteen pieces for assembling were arranged to assemblers. They used ten pieces to complete the collaborative tasks in video communication. Final forms of assembled pieces and appreciate assembly orders of pieces were instructed to indicators. However assemblers didn't know about the assembly orders of pieces and the final form. Indicators were instructed to talk with assembler, and to complete pieces early as possible.


2.2 Interaction Modes

Interaction between indicators and assemblers were carried out with following three modes.

Speech+Vision (SV): Indicator and assembler can be seen each other's figure, and can listen to their voice as well. Video image and voice are used in Video SV mode. Indicator points out pieces of the assembler with the gesture, gaze, the facial expression and voice through video. The assembler can also interact with the indicator showing assembled pieces.

Speech (S): Indicator and assembler can listen to each other's voice. However they could not see each other, because the screen being between them. Therefore the interaction through the speaker system was carried out on video S. Vision (V): Each figure of subjects can be seen, but they can't listen to the voice. Therefore content and confirmation of the task were transmitted using gesture, facial expression and eye contacts.

These were adopted with the video condition and the face-to-face (ff) condition. Thirty-six subjects were participated in the experiments.


2.3 Experimental Conditions

In video communication, Indicator and assembler were isolated physically at room A and B respectively. Video devices were established in both rooms. The pictures of their figures were reflected on screen by video projector. Contrast of the video image was adjusted to make their figures being clearly. Distance from the subject to video screen was 180 cm on the video condition. The picture size of face and body of them was equal to live size.

In face-to-face condition, subjects were in the same room and sat down at 180 cm distance from each other.

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