Human-Computer Interaction: Communication, Cooperation, and Application Design

By Hans-Jörg Bullinger; Jürgen Ziegler | Go to book overview
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"intention" and "situation", were induced from the analysis of the interview. Both of them are defined as follows.Intention: Intention is what the operator wants to do on his/her problem. Intention is composed of "target", which is the goal to be reached, and "strategy" which is the path to reach the target. It is very important that each operator understands intentions of other operators at different levels.Situation: Situation is the state of the system or subsystem to be managed by the operator. The situation changes time after time, and it is important that the situation of the system is expressed for the operators to be understood intuitively and easily.Operators at each level of hierarchy have their own intentions depending on the situation. The intention at the upper level, which is composed of its target and strategy, is decided on the basis of the situation of the whole system. Then orders in perspective are sent to the lower levels based on the intention. At each lower level, intention is formed from the orders from the upper level and the situation in its area, and concrete operations are conducted based on its intention. The changes of the situations are caused by these operations at the lower levels, and in some cases the changes of intentions are caused as a result. This process continues until the problem is solved totally. The proposed model was traced for the real problem solving process observed in the fire systems, and it was confirmed that the concepts of intention and situation were suitable to express the real-time problem solving process.
3. Design Concept of Coordinated Interfaces for Hierarchical Decision Making
Coordination between different levels in a hierachical structure is very important in real-time problem solving. We believe that the following functions derived from the process model in the previous section are very important and useful.
A. Visualization of intention

Showing the intentions at other levels in concrete visible form is considered to be useful to enhance mutual understanding between operators. For example, it will be useful for the lower level operators if they can see the intention of the upper level operator together with the issued orders concretely.

B. Visualization of situation


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Human-Computer Interaction: Communication, Cooperation, and Application Design
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