"intention" and "situation", were induced from the analysis of the interview. Both
of them are defined as follows.Intention: Intention is what the operator wants to do on his/her problem. Intention
is composed of "target", which is the goal to be reached, and "strategy" which is
the path to reach the target. It is very important that each operator understands
intentions of other operators at different levels.Situation: Situation is the state of the system or subsystem to be managed by the
operator. The situation changes time after time, and it is important that the
situation of the system is expressed for the operators to be understood intuitively
and easily.Operators at each level of hierarchy have their own intentions depending on the
situation. The intention at the upper level, which is composed of its target and
strategy, is decided on the basis of the situation of the whole system. Then orders
in perspective are sent to the lower levels based on the intention. At each lower
level, intention is formed from the orders from the upper level and the situation
in its area, and concrete operations are conducted based on its intention. The
changes of the situations are caused by these operations at the lower levels, and in
some cases the changes of intentions are caused as a result. This process continues
until the problem is solved totally. The proposed model was traced for the real
problem solving process observed in the fire systems, and it was confirmed that
the concepts of intention and situation were suitable to express the real-time
problem solving process.
3. Design Concept of Coordinated Interfaces for
Hierarchical Decision MakingCoordination between different levels in a hierachical structure is very
important in real-time problem solving. We believe that the following functions
derived from the process model in the previous section are very important and
|A. ||Visualization of intention|
Showing the intentions at other levels in concrete visible form is considered to be
useful to enhance mutual understanding between operators. For example, it will be
useful for the lower level operators if they can see the intention of the upper level
operator together with the issued orders concretely.
|B. ||Visualization of situation|
Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com
Book title: Human-Computer Interaction:Communication, Cooperation, and Application Design.
Contributors: Hans-Jörg Bullinger - Editor, Jürgen Ziegler - Editor.
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Place of publication: Mahwah, NJ.
Publication year: 1999.
Page number: 368.
This material is protected by copyright and, with the exception of fair use, may
not be further copied, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means.