Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
b. Plebiscites since the Great War.
c. Theoretical advantages of the plebiscite.
i. Provides a single principle or standard (compare 3-b, above).
ii. Fundamentally democratic.
d. Practical difficulties.
i. Question whether large or small districts should be used, for example--Should all Ireland vote as a unit, or should Ulster be allowed to vote separately? Should a single town, such as Fiume, be allowed to vote itself out of one country into another?
ii. Danger of unfair practices--intimidation, bribery, importation of voters, etc.
iii. Possibility of peaceful conquest of a country, or part of it, by immigrants, if they outnumber natives.
iv. Possibility, if small voting districts are used, that too many irregular frontiers and even political "islands" may be created.
v. Existence, after plebiscite, of discontented minority.
5. Other solutions?

V. NATIONALISM AND THE PROBLEM OF MINORITIES

A. CONNECTION WITH SELF-DETERMINATION AND IRREDENTISM.
1. Discontent on the part of racial, linguistic, or religious minorities often fostered by irredentism or by hope of self-determination-- for example:
a. Agitation of pan-Serbian societies in Austria-Hungary before 1914.
b. Agitation of Greek, Bulgarian, and Yugoslav irredentists in Macedonia, before Balkan Wars.
2. Persecution of such minorities often motivated by fear of irredentism or of self-determination--for example:
a. Persecution of Yugoslavs in Austria-Hungary before 1914.
b. Persecution of Poles in Prussia before 1914.
3. Irredentism usually stimulated by such persecution.
a. Failure of persecution to preserve unity of Austria-Hungary.
b. Failure in the case of Prussian Poland.
4. The vicious circle--irredentism, persecution, more intense irredentism.

B. SOME PRE-WAR MINORITY PROBLEMS.
1. "Prussianization" policies in Prussian Poland, Northern Schleswig, and Alsace-Lorraine.

References:--* Hayes, Modern Europe, II, 419. # C. D. Hazen, Alsace- Lorraine under German Rule. # Bülow, Imperial Germany, Pt. 1, ch. iv. # Dawson, Evolution of Modern Germany, ch. xxiii.

2. "Russification" policies of Russian government as applied to Poles, Lithuanians, Esthonians, Letts, Finns, Ukrainians, Armenians, etc.

References:--* Hayes, Modern Europe, II, 470-3. Hazen, Europe Since

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