Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview

PART FOUR
MILITARISM AND ARMAMENTS
General references:--The best general, brief discussions which may be used as texts are: A. G. Enock, The Problem of Armaments. O. T. Crosby , International War: Its Cause and Its Cure. G. L. Dickinson, War: Its Nature, Cause and Cure. R. M. Johnston, Arms and the Race. F. W. Hirst, The Political Economy of War. G. H. Perris, A Short History of War and Peace. Kirby Page, War: Its Causes, Consequences and Cure. E. D. Morel, Military Preparations for the Great War. See also innumerable pamphlets issued by the American Society for International Conciliation and the World Peace Foundation; also a Selected List of References and Magazine Articles on Disarmament, Cost of Armaments and War, prepared in the Library of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.
I. OUTSTANDING CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN ARMAMENTS
References:--General references above. Also: * Hirst, chs. i-iv. * Johnston, chs. i-iv. Perris, chs. vi-x. # Morel. # Newbold, How Europe Armed for War. # Krehbiel, Nationalism, War and Society, ch. xiv and bibliography.
A. MASS PARTICIPATION--"THE NATION IN ARMS."
Special References:-- J. H. Rose, Nationality in Modern History, chs. i-ii. Sir Charles Watson, Universal Service. C. von der Goltz, A Nation in Arms. E. F. Henderson, Germany's Fighting Machine. General references above.
1. Relatively small size of medieval feudal armies and early modern mercenary armies.
2. Increase of royal armies by autocratic monarchs of 17th and 18th centuries--e.g.,Louis XIV and Frederick the Great.
3. The levée en masse in the French Revolution and under Napoleon.
4. Development of Prussian universal service system in 19th century.
5. Adoption of universal service by Great Powers (except Gt. Britain and U. S.) and some small powers.
6. Significance.
a. Direct participation of whole population, instead of aristocrats or professional soldiers alone, in modern war.
b. Immense economic cost (below).
c. Superiority of nations with largest populations, unless counterbalanced by superior organization or scientific equipment.

B. APPLICATION OF SCIENCE TO WARFARE.
Special References:--* Enock, ch. v. Ivan Bloch, The Future of War. # W. Irwin, The Next War. World Peace Foundation, The Staggering Burden of Armament, ch. ii. C. R. Gibson, The War Inventions.
1. Improvement of rifles, artillery, armor, explosives, etc., in 19th century.
2. New applications of science in Great War--military aviation, tanks, improved explosives, poison gas, liquid fire, etc.

-74-

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