Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
3. Remarkable scientific developments since the Great War.
4. Effect of applied science in making war more costly and destructive.
5. Uncertain value of armaments, in view of possibility of new inventions and new methods.

C. INDUSTRIALISM IN WARFARE.
Special References:-- * Enock, 60-88. * Clark, Hamilton and Moulton, Readings, ch. viii. I. Bloch, Future of War. G. B. Clarkson, Industrial America in the World War. Also references above, and III, below.
1. Modern war as a stupendous industrial enterprise.
2. Industrial strength as a potent factor in military success.
3. Recent tendency of nations to seek national control of raw materials, key industries, and industries producing war materials (compare Part 8).
4. Profitableness of war for certain industries, and recent agitation for "conscription of industry" in case of war.
5. Industrial character of modern war as a factor tending to break down distinction between military and "civilian" population in wartime.

D. PROPAGANDIST CHARACTER OF MODERN WAR.
Special Reference:-- Encyclopædia Britannica, XXXII, "Propaganda". Compare Part 6, VI-C.
1. Importance of "morale" in view of A and C, above.
2. Wide scope and ingenious methods of propaganda in Great War.
3. Tendency of propaganda to inflame enmities, making post-bellum reconciliation difficult.
4. Tendency of propaganda in countries waging aggressive war to obscure the facts and deceive the people.
5. Tendency of propaganda to give distorted view of military defeats and successes, making popular judgment of chances of success impossible.

II. GROWTH OF ARMAMENTS BEFORE 1914

A. GROWTH OF ARMIES.
Special References:-- * Morel, * Newbold, and other general references above. Duggan, League of Nations, 122. K. Page, 30-32 (table).
1. Standing armies of the Great Powers.*
Population
1895 1910 1914 1914
Germany 585,000 634,000 812,000 68,000,000
Austria-Hungary 349,000 327,000 424,000 52,000,000
Italy 238,000 288,000 318,000 36,000,000
Russia 910,000 1,200,000 1,300,000 174,000,000
France 572,000 634,000 846,000 40,000,000
Great Britain 369,000 255,000 250,000 46,000,000§
Japan 230,000 250,000§ 54,000,000
United States 81,000 105,000 99,000,000
Army law of 1913 provided for 870,000 but had not been completely fulfilled.
Including colonial troops.
§ Excluding colonies.
____________________
*
It is difficult to obtain reliable statistics for comparison, because of lack of uniformity as regards inclusion of commissioned officers, colonial troops, soldiers on leave, militia, etc. The columns for 1895 and 1910 are from publications of the U. S. Army. Figures for 1914 from Statesman's Year Book. War strength was uncertain and elastic. Germany's war strength was estimated from 3 to 5 millions, Russia's from 5 to 7, Italy's 1,400,000. France actually mobilized 3,781,000 in Aug., 1914, and Great Britain 733,000.

-75-

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