Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
2. Armies of smaller powers.
1914 1922 Population 1922
Poland 275,000 27,000,000
Czechoslovakia 150,000 13,600,000
Yugoslavia 58,000 127,000 12,000,000
Greece 60,000 150,000 5,500,000
Rumania 130,000 200,000 17,000,000

B. NAVALISM STIMULATED.
1. The 1916 program of the U. S., to create "a navy equal to the most powerful maintained by any other nation in the world."
2. The Japanese "Eight-eight program," adopted in 1920.
3. Great Britain's program of "post-Jutland" super-dreadnoughts.

C. COST OF ARMAMENTS AFTER THE WAR.
1. Government expenditures for army and navy in 1922 as compared with 1913-14 (calculated in American dollars, according to exchange rates prevailing at the time).
1913-14 1922
British Empire $ 661,000,000 $1,073,000,000
France 349,000,000 461,000,000*
Italy 181,000,000 123,000,000
Japan 96,000,000 367,000,000
Total $1,287,000,000 $2,024,000,000
* Not including cost of Army of Occupation, which is charged to Germany.
2. Universality of heavy military expenditures in Europe, even including many small states.
3. Employment of millions of men in armies and navies, and in production of armaments, a heavy economic drain during difficult period of reconstruction.

D. ATTEMPTS TO REDUCE ARMAMENTS SINCE 1918.
1. The League of Nations.
a. Article 8 of the Covenant.
b. Investigations conducted by the League.
c. Naval conference of 1924.
d. Attempts to formulate plans for regional disarmament.
e. Protocol drafted in 1924 to prevent aggressive war and make possible limitation of armaments by conference to be held in 1925.
2. Washington Arms Conference.
3. Restrictions on naval armaments.
4. Failure to limit armies, air armaments, submarines and smaller naval craft.
5. Difficulty of disarmament without "moral disarmament"; need of security; difficulty of obtaining security while international enmities prevail; significance of League as attempt to promote "moral disarmament."

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