Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview

A. RISE OF THE MODERN STATE SYSTEM, THE BASIS OF CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS.
1. Contrast between modern system of international relations and
a. Relations between small city-states in ancient Greece.
b. Domination of civilized European world by Roman Empire.
c. Medieval conditions.
2. Gradual rise of national states as units of international relations.
a. Beginnings in later Middle Ages and 15th-16th century.
b. Recognition of the new order in Grotius, De Jure Belli ac Pacis.
c. The Treaty of Westphalia ( 1648) as marking the beginning of the era of national states (a more or less arbitrary, but convenient landmark).

B. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEONIC WARS.
1. 1. Alignment of Continental autocracies against Revolutionary France; liberalism and democracy as menaces to the peace of Europe.
2. Alignment of England with Continental autocracies, and importance of English seapower in ultimate defeat of France.
3. Remarkable awakening of popular patriotism and popular interest in wars; warfare no longer a personal affair of Kings.

C. AUTOCRATIC DIPLOMACY VERSUS NATIONALISM AND LIBERALISM, FROM 1814 TO 1850.
1. Desire for peace and order after Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.
2. Tendency of other powers to regard Revolution as menace to peace and order, and France as hotbed of Revolution.
3. Metternich as the guiding genius of autocratic diplomacy in effort to preserve peace and old régime after 1814.
4. Disregard of incipient nationalism and liberalism by Congress of Vienna.
5. Failure of Holy and Quadruple Alliances to preserve status quo completely.
a. Canning and England's growing aloofness from Continental autocracy.
b. The Monroe Doctrine.
c. The French and Belgian Revolutions of 1830.
d. Divergence between liberal western Europe and the east-European autocracies, clear-cut by 1830.
e. The revolutionary movement of 1848--success in France and failure in central Europe.

D. GROWING INFLUENCE OF NATIONALISM AND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ON DIPLOMACY DURING MID-VICTORIAN PERIOD.
1. Importance of nationalism in diplomacy.
a. Bismarck's diplomacy and unification of Germany.
b. Cavour's diplomacy and unification of Italy.
c. Louis Napoleon's diplomacy, as an expression of ambitious French nationalism.
d. The American Civil War as an expression of awakening nationalism.

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