Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
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a. Willingness of Allies to make peace on terms of Wilson's speech of Jan. 8, 1918, and subsequent addresses, with following exceptions.
b. Refusal of Allies to bind themselves regarding "freedom of the seas."
c. "Compensation will be made by Germany for all damage done to the civilian population of the Allies and their property by the aggression of Germany by land, by sea, and from the air."
2. Inclusion of reparation clause in German armistice: "Reparation for damage done." (Article XIX.)
3. Allied occupation of territories pledged by secret treaties.
a. Alsace-Lorraine (compare II-F-7-h).
b. Left Bank of Rhine (compare II-F-7-h).
c. Southern Tyrol (Trentino), Gradisca and Gorizia, Trieste, Istria, Dalmatia--pledged to Italy (compare II-F-7-c).
d. Hungarian evacuation of Transylvania and other regions pledged to Rumania (compare II-F-7-g).
e. Mesopotamia, Palestine, Syria, Cilicia (compare II-F-6-e).
4. The armistices as a factor in shaping the peace treaties.
a. Unwillingness of victorious powers to relinquish territories occupied under armistices.
b. Impotence of vanquished states to refuse peace terms.
c. Influence of military leaders, in command of Allied forces, for example, desire of Marshal Foch to wrest Left Bank from Germany.

VI. OTHER ASPECTS OF THE WAR

A. INTERNATIONAL LAW AND TREATIES.
References:-- Temperley, History of the Peace Conference, I, 358-64. C. Phillipson, International Law and the Great War. J. W. Garner, International Law and the World War. J. B. Moore, International Law and Some Current Illusions.
1. Abrogation or suspension, during war, of treaties of commerce and many other treaties between states on opposing sides.
2. The laws of land warfare.
1. The Hague conventions and other restrictions on methods of land warfare.
2. Tendency of belligerents to disregard such restrictions--use of "dumdum" bullets, poison and asphyxiating gases, bombardment of unfortified towns, reprisals, etc.
3. One reason for ineffectiveness of Hague conventions--not all belligerents had agreed to them.
3. The laws of maritime warfare.
a. The nature of international restrictions on methods of maritime warfare--especially the Treaty of Paris ( 1856) and the Declaration of London.
b. Disregard of such restrictions by German submarine warfare.
c. Disregard of restrictions by British blockade orders, and British rejection of American proposal to adopt Declaration of London as maritime code.

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