Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview

VII. THE PEACE SETTLEMENT OF 1919-1920
General References:--* Hayes, Modern Europe, II, ch. 33 (revised ed.). * Carnegie Endowment, The Treaties of Peace. * Gooch, Modern Europe, ch. xix. * Encyc. Brit., XXXII, 35-47.# Baker (R. S.), Woodrow Wilson and the World Settlement.# House (E. M.) and Seymour (C.) , What Really Happened at Paris. Temperley (H. W. V. editor), History of the Peace Conference of Paris ( 6 vols.). Lansing (R.), The Peace Negotiations; The Big Four and Others. Haskins (C. H.) and Lord (R.), Some Problems of the Peace Conference. Baruch (B. M.), The Making of the Reparation and Economic Sections of the Treaty. Keynes (J. M.), Economic Consequences of the Peace. Tardieu (A.), The Truth About the Treaty. Hanotaux (G.), Le Traité de Versailles. U. S. Government, Hearings Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U. S. Senate, 1919. German Government, Materialen betreffend die Friedensverhandlungen. W. Schücking, (ed.), Kommentar zum Friedensvertrage. C. T. Thompson, The Peace Conference Day by Day. G. L. Beer , African Questions at the Peace Conference. A. L. Kennedy, Old Diplomacy and New. M. Hankey, Diplomacy by Conference. Mermeix, Le Combat des Trois. Lawrence, Woodrow Wilson, ch. xv.
A. OBSTACLES TO THE CONCLUSION OF A JUST PEACE.
1. Secret diplomacy.
a. The secret treaties (see above, II-F-7).
b. Conflicting opinions regarding publicity at Paris.
c. Practical secrecy of negotiations at Paris.
2. Conflicting nationalist aspirations.
a. Intensification of nationalist demands by war propaganda and by victory.
b. National self-determination as one of the guiding principles of the conference.
c. Bewildering conflict of claims based on national self-determination supported by economic, historical, strategic, ethnographic, and other arguments (above, Part Two, III).
3. 3. Imperialism.
a. Imperialist aims of Japan in Shantung and of Japan and England in Pacific islands.
b. Imperialist aims of England, France, Italy, in Near East.
c. Imperialist aims of England, France, Italy, and Belgium in Africa.
4. 4. Militarism.
a. Maintenance of Allied armies in the field, as a psychological factor militating against moderation.
b. Tendency of peace-makers to recognize military possession as "nine points of the law" (cf. Armistices, above).
c. Militarist conception of security--necessity of crippling enemies and obtaining "strategic frontiers," for example:
i. Marshal Foch's demand for the Rhine as military frontier.
ii. Italian demand for Brenner Pass.

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