Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
G. Hunt, The Department of State of the United States, Its History and Functions. U. S. Dept. of State, History of the Department of State ( 1901); A Short Account of the Department of State. Id., The Department of State: personnel and organization. Swiggett G. L., Training for Foreign Service. J. B. Moore, Principles of American Diplomacy. G. Young, Diplomacy Old and New. Ward and Gooch, Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy, III, ch. viii. Satow, Diplomatic Practice, Bk. II.
A. ARISTOCRATS OR DEMOCRATS.
1. Diplomacy as an aristocratic profession; virtual monopoly of higher offices in European diplomacy by noblemen until very recent times.
2. The movement in England for equal opportunities of advancement, as a step toward democratization of the foreign service.
3. Growth of democratic government as a factor opposed to aristocratic diplomacy.
4. Spread of republicanism, and abolition of numerous monarchical courts, as a factor making for more democratic diplomacy.
5. Democracy in the American foreign service.
a. Absence of any titled aristocracy in America, but tendency to appoint wealthy men as ambassadors and ministers.
b. Need of private fortune to supplement inadequate salaries.
c. Aristocratic social functions of ambassadors in European capitals.

B. AMATEURS OR EXPERTS.
1. European preference for experts.
a. General European practice of appointing to important posts men who have had considerable experience in subordinate diplomatic positions.
b. Large number of European diplomatists who have made diplomacy a life career.
c. Recent tendency to employ financial, geographical and other experts as advisers or as delegates to special conferences.
2. Predominance of amateurs in American diplomacy.
a. The spoils system, and resulting appointment of ambassadors and ministers who frequently have had no diplomatic experience.
i. Contrast with the European practice.
ii. Alleged advantages--greater harmony between the Administration and its foreign representatives; ability and prestige of amateurs such as Walter H. Page.
iii. Alleged disadvantages--diplomatic inexperience and ignorance as handicaps in dealing with trained diplomatists.
iv. Importance of legation and embassy secretaries and attachés, who supply some of the experience and technical knowledge which ambassadors or ministers may lack.
b. Presidents and secretaries of state--as a rule in recent times amateurs in diplomacy.
c. The Department of State.
i. Importance as source of instructions to representatives abroad; clearing house for reports of the latter; chief source of advice for President and Secretary of State.

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