Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
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Hicks, 236-9, 254-5, 270-9, 286-9. Reinsch, Public International Unions, 429. Woolf, International Government, 285-304. B. E. Lowe, International Protection of Labor. U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Historical Survey of International Action Affecting Labor. Feis, "The Eight Hour Day Convention" in Political Science Quarterly, Sept. and Dec. 1924. G. A. Johnston, International Social Progress.
A. INTERNATIONAL CHARACTER OF THE LABOR PROBLEM.
1. International industrial competition--hence, fear of industrialists in each country that foreign competitors will undersell them if standards of labor are raised above those of other countries.
2. Internationalism of trade union, Socialist, and Communist movements.
3. General similarity of labor legislation in most civilized countries.
4. On the other hand, differences of economic and political conditions, making uniformity difficult.
5. Close relationship between labor conditions and immigration.

B. INTERNATIONAL COÖPERATION REGARDING LABOR LEGISLATION BEFORE 1914.
1. Occasional international conferences on labor legislation.
a. Private conferences of 1880's as precursors of official conferences.
b. Rôle of Switzerland as leader in movement for international labor legislation and conferences.
c. Official Berlin Conference for Labor Protection, 1890--discussion but no important action.
d. Zurich and Brussels conferences of 1897.
e. Paris Conference of 1900 and creation of unofficial International Association for Legal Protection of Labor, and International Labor Office.
f. Berne conferences of 1905-6.
i. Conventions on white phosphorus matches and night work for women.
j. Rejection of British proposal for international commission to supervise enforcement.
g. Berne Conference of 1913.
2. Numerous bipartite treaties for mutual coöperation.
3. Relatively slow progress of international coöperation in labor legislation before the war, due to:
a. Great technical difficulties of framing conventions to apply to diverse conditions.
b. Lack of strong support by governments.
4. Position of the United States.
a. Non-acceptance of Berne conventions.
b. Uncertainty as to whether federal government's treaty-making power can override reserved power of states over labor legislation, under the Constitution.

C. THE "LABOR CHARTER" IN THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES (art. 427).
1. Reasons for its adoption.
2. The nine principles.

-230-

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