Syllabus on International Relations

By Parker Thomas Moon; Institute of International Education (New York, N.Y.) | Go to book overview
b. Increasing number of arbitration treaties.
5. The Hague Conferences.
a. First Hague Conference and creation of Permanent Court of Arbitration.
i. Provision for permanent lists (panels) of judges eligible to act as arbitrators.
j. Choice of judges from such lists to form special court for each case.
k. Defects.
Lack of continuity.
Lack of obligatory jurisdiction.
Complexity and expense of system of creating court.
l. Salutary effect on public opinion.
b. Second Hague Conference.
i. Improvement of convention regarding Permanent Court of Arbitration.
j. Unsuccessful project for Court of Arbitral Justice, blocked by Great Powers' opposition to small powers' demand for equality of nations in choosing judges.
k. Unsuccessful project for International Prize Court (not ratified).
l. Effect in stimulating movement for arbitration and international court.
6. The Hague Court of Arbitration in operation.
a. Successful settlement of 18 cases, 1900-1924.
b. Unwillingness of powers to submit numerous disputes to the Court.
c. Inadequacy of the system.
7. Arbitration treaties after the Hague Conferences.
a. Large number of arbitration treaties adopted after 1899.
b. Exclusion of questions affecting national honor, independence, and vital interests from obligatory arbitration, except in a few of the many arbitration treaties.
8. Advocacy of arbitration as a United States policy.
a. Settlement of important Anglo-American disputes in 19th century by arbitration.
b. McKinley's message of 1897.
c. Instructions to delegates to first Hague Conference.
d. Root's instructions to delegates to 2nd Hague Conference, and Roosevelt's desire for a genuine international court.
e. Conclusion of numerous arbitration treaties.

C. THE WORLD COURT (Permanent Court of International Justice).
1. Establishment.
a. Article 14 of Covenant.
b. Drafting of plan by commission of jurists, including E. Root, at request of League Council, 1920.
c. Adoption of statute by Council and Assembly of League, 1920.
d. Signature of protocol by 47 nations; ratification by most of these.
e. Election of judges ( Sept., 1921) and opening of court ( Jan. 1922).
2. Nature and powers of court.

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